Design Patterns in C#

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Design patterns are recurring solutions to software design problems you find again and again in real-world application development. Patterns are about design and interaction of objects, as well as providing a communication platform concerning elegant, reusable solutions to commonly encountered programming challenges.

Creational Patterns
Abstract Factory
Creates an instance of several families of classes
Builder
Separates object construction from its representation
Factory Method
Creates an instance of several derived classes
Prototype
A fully initialized instance to be copied or cloned
Singleton
A class of which only a single instance can exist

Structural Patterns
Adapter
Match interfaces of different classes
Bridge
Separates an object’s interface from its implementation
Composite
A tree structure of simple and composite objects
Decorator
Add responsibilities to objects dynamically
Facade
A single class that represents an entire subsystem
Flyweight
A fine-grained instance used for efficient sharing
Proxy
An object representing another object

Behavioral Patterns
Chain of Resp.
A way of passing a request between a chain of objects
Command
Encapsulate a command request as an object
Interpreter
A way to include language elements in a program
Iterator
Sequentially access the elements of a collection
Mediator
Defines simplified communication between classes
Memento
Capture and restore an object's internal state
Observer
A way of notifying change to a number of classes
State
Alter an object's behavior when its state changes
Strategy
Encapsulates an algorithm inside a class
Template Method
Defer the exact steps of an algorithm to a subclass
Visitor
Defines a new operation to a class without change

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Whats New In Entity Framework 4

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Whats New In Adonet Data Services 1.5

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ASP.NET 4 and AJAX

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Whats New In C Sharp 4 And Vb 10

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Interfaces in C# part2

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Interfaces in C# Part1

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SharePoint Server Interview Questions(Part3)

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SharePoint Server Interview Questions (Part3)

30) When would you use an event receiver?

Since event receivers respond to events, you could use a receiver for something as simple as canceling an action, such as deleting a document library by using the Cancel property. This would essentially prevent users from deleting any documents if you wanted to maintain retention of stored data.

31) What base class do event receivers inherit from?

Event receivers either inherit from the SPListEventReciever base class or the SPItemEventReciever base class, both which derive from the abstract base class SPEventReceiverBase.

32) If I wanted to not allow people to delete documents from a document library, how would I go about it?

You would on the ItemDeleting event set: properties.Cancel= true.

33) What is the difference between an asynchronous and synchronous event receivers?

An asynchronous event occurs after an action has taken place, and a synchronous event occurs before an action has take place. For example, an asynchronous event is ItemAdded, and its sister synchronous event is ItemAdding.

34) How could you append a string to the title of a site when it is provisioned?

In the OnActivated event:

Select For Unformatted Code

C#:

1. SPWeb site = siteCollection.RootWeb;

2. site.Title += "interview";

3. site.Update();

35) Can an event receiver be deployed through a SharePoint feature?

Yes.

36) What is a content type?

A content type is an information blueprint basically that can be re-used throughout a SharePoint environment for defining things like metadata and associated behaviors. It is basically an extension of a SharePoint list, however makes it portable for use throughout an instance regardless of where the instantiation occurs, ergo has location independence. Multiple content types can exist in one document library assuming that the appropriate document library settings are enabled. The content type will contain things like the metadata, listform pages, workflows, templates (if a document content type), and associated custom written functionality.

37) Can a content type have receivers associated with it?

Yes, a content type can have an event receiver associated with it, either inheriting from the SPListEventReciever base class for list level events, or inheriting from the SPItemEventReciever base class. Whenever the content type is instantiated, it will be subject to the event receivers that are associated with it.

38) What two files are typically (this is kept generally) included when developing a content type, and what is the purpose of each?

There is generally the main content type file that holds things like the content type ID, name, group, description, and version. There is also the ContentType.Fields file which contains the fields to include in the content type that has the ID, Type, Name, DisplayName, StaticName, Hidden, Required, and Sealed elements. They are related by the FieldRefs element in the main content type file.

39) What is an ancestral type and what does it have to do with content types?

An ancestral type is the base type that the content type is deriving from, such as Document (0x0101). The ancestral type will define the metadata fields that are included with the custom content type.

40) Can a list definition be derived from a custom content type?

Yes, a list definition can derive from a content type which can be seen in the schema.XML of the list definition in the element.

41) When creating a list definition, how can you create an instance of the list?

You can create a new instance of a list by creating an instance.XML file.

42) What is a Field Control?

Field controls are simple ASP.NET 2.0 server controls that provide the basic field functionality of SharePoint. They provide basic general functionality such as displaying or editing list data as it appears on SharePoint list pages.

43) What base class do custom Field Controls inherit from?

This varies. Generally, custom field controls inherit from the Microsoft.SharePoint.WebControls.BaseFieldControl namespace, but you can inherit from the default field controls.

44) What is a SharePoint site definition? What is ghosted (uncustomized) and unghosted (customized)?

SharePoint site definitions are the core set of functionality from which SharePoint site are built from, building from the SiteTemplates directory in the SharePoint 12 hive. Site definitions allow several sites to inherit from a core set of files on the file system, although appear to have unique pages, thereby increasing performance and allowing changes that happen to a site propagate to all sites that inherit from a site definition. Ghosted means that when SharePoint creates a new site it will reference the files in the related site definition upon site provisioning. Unghosted means that the site has been edited with an external editor, and therefore the customizations are instead stored in the database, breaking the inheritance of those files from the file system.

45) How does one deploy new SharePoint site definitions so that they are made aware to the SharePoint system?

The best way to deploy site definitions in the SharePoint 2007 framework is to use a SharePoint solution file, so that the new site definition is automatically populated to all WFE’s in the SharePoint farm.

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WebServices And Windows Services Questions

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Can you give an example of when it would be appropriate to use a web service as opposed to non-serviced .NET component
Web service is one of main component in Service Oriented Architecture. You could use web services when your clients and servers are running on different networks and also different platforms. This provides a loosely coupled system. And also if the client is behind the firewall it would be easy to use web service since it runs on port 80 (by default) instead of having some thing else in Service Oriented Architecture applications.
What is the standard you use to wrap up a call to a Web service
"SOAP.
"
What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service SOAP
HTTP with SOAP

What does WSDL stand for?
"WSDL stands for Web Services Dsescription Langauge. There is WSDL.exe that creates a .wsdl Files which defines how an XML Web service behaves and instructs clients as to how to interact with the service.
eg: wsdl http://LocalHost/WebServiceName.asmx"

Where on the Internet would you look for Web Services?
www.uddi.org

What does WSDL stand for?
Web Services Description Language

True or False: To test a Web service you must create a windows application or Web application to consume this service?
False.

What are the various ways of accessing a web service ?
1.Asynchronous Call
Application can make a call to the Webservice and then continue todo watever oit wants to do.When the service is ready it will notify the application.Application can use BEGIN and END method to make asynchronous call to the webmethod.We can use either a WaitHandle or a Delegate object when making asynchronous call.
The WaitHandle class share resources between several objects. It provides several methods which will wait for the resources to become available
The easiest and most powerful way to to implement an asynchronous call is using a delegate object. A delegate object wraps up a callback function. The idea is to pass a method in the invocation of the web method. When the webmethod has finished it will call this callback function to process the result

2.Synchronous Call
Application has to wait until execution has completed.



What are VSDISCO files?
VSDISCO files are DISCO files that support dynamic discovery of Web services. If you place the following VSDISCO file in a directory on your Web server, for example, it returns references to all ASMX and DISCO files in the host directory and any subdirectories not noted in elements:


xmlns="urn:schemas-dynamicdiscovery:disco.2000-03-17">







How does dynamic discovery work?
ASP.NET maps the file name extension VSDISCO to an HTTP handler that scans the host directory and subdirectories for ASMX and DISCO files and returns a dynamically generated DISCO document. A client who requests a VSDISCO file gets back what appears to be a static DISCO document.

Note that VSDISCO files are disabled in the release version of ASP.NET. You can reenable them by uncommenting the line in the section of Machine.config that maps *.vsdisco to System.Web.Services.Discovery.DiscoveryRequestHandler and granting the ASPNET user account permission to read the IIS metabase. However, Microsoft is actively discouraging the use of VSDISCO files because they could represent a threat to Web server security.

Is it possible to prevent a browser from caching an ASPX page?
Just call SetNoStore on the HttpCachePolicy object exposed through the Response object's Cache property, as demonstrated here:

<%@ Page Language="C#" %>


<%
Response.Cache.SetNoStore ();
Response.Write (DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString ());
%>



SetNoStore works by returning a Cache-Control: private, no-store header in the HTTP response. In this example, it prevents caching of a Web page that shows the current time.

What does AspCompat="true" mean and when should I use it?
AspCompat is an aid in migrating ASP pages to ASPX pages. It defaults to false but should be set to true in any ASPX file that creates apartment-threaded COM objects--that is, COM objects registered ThreadingModel=Apartment. That includes all COM objects written with Visual Basic 6.0. AspCompat should also be set to true (regardless of threading model) if the page creates COM objects that access intrinsic ASP objects such as Request and Response. The following directive sets AspCompat to true:
<%@ Page AspCompat="true" %>
Setting AspCompat to true does two things. First, it makes intrinsic ASP objects available to the COM components by placing unmanaged wrappers around the equivalent ASP.NET objects. Second, it improves the performance of calls that the page places to apartment- threaded COM objects by ensuring that the page (actually, the thread that processes the request for the page) and the COM objects it creates share an apartment. AspCompat="true" forces ASP.NET request threads into single-threaded apartments (STAs). If those threads create COM objects marked ThreadingModel=Apartment, then the objects are created in the same STAs as the threads that created them. Without AspCompat="true," request threads run in a multithreaded apartment (MTA) and each call to an STA-based COM object incurs a performance hit when it's marshaled across apartment boundaries.
Do not set AspCompat to true if your page uses no COM objects or if it uses COM objects that don't access ASP intrinsic objects and that are registered ThreadingModel=Free or ThreadingModel=Both.

Can two different programming languages be mixed in a single ASMX file?
No.

What namespaces are imported by default in ASMX files?
The following namespaces are imported by default. Other namespaces must be imported manually.• System, System.Collections,System.ComponentModel,System.Data, System.Diagnostics,System.Web,System.Web.Services
How do I provide information to the Web Service when the information is required as a SOAP Header?
The key here is the Web Service proxy you created using wsdl.exe or through Visual Studio .NET's Add Web Reference menu option. If you happen to download a WSDL file for a Web Service that requires a SOAP header, .NET will create a SoapHeader class in the proxy source file. Using the previous example:
public class Service1 : System.Web.Services.Protocols.SoapHttpClientProtocol
{
public AuthToken AuthTokenValue;

[System.Xml.Serialization.XmlRootAttribute(Namespace="http://tempuri.org/", IsNullable=false)]
public class AuthToken : SoapHeader { public string Token; }}

In this case, when you create an instance of the proxy in your main application file, you'll also create an instance of the AuthToken class and assign the string:
Service1 objSvc = new Service1();
processingobjSvc.AuthTokenValue = new AuthToken();
objSvc.AuthTokenValue.Token = ;
Web Servicestring strResult = objSvc.MyBillableWebMethod();

What is WSDL?
WSDL is the Web Service Description Language, and it is implemented as a specific XML vocabulary. While it's very much more complex than what can be described here, there are two important aspects to WSDL with which you should be aware. First, WSDL provides instructions to consumers of Web Services to describe the layout and contents of the SOAP packets the Web Service intends to issue. It's an interface description document, of sorts. And second, it isn't intended that you read and interpret the WSDL. Rather, WSDL should be processed by machine, typically to generate proxy source code (.NET) or create dynamic proxies on the fly (the SOAP Toolkit or Web Service Behavior).

What is a Windows Service and how does its lifecycle differ from a "standard" EXE?
Windows service is a application that runs in the background. It is equivalent to a NT service.
The executable created is not a Windows application, and hence you can't just click and run it . it needs to be installed as a service, VB.Net has a facility where we can add an installer to our program and then use a utility to install the service. Where as this is not the case with standard exe

How can a win service developed in .NET be installed or used in Win98?
Windows service cannot be installed on Win9x machines even though the .NET framework runs on machine.
Can you debug a Windows Service? How ?
Yes we can debug a Windows Service.
Attach the WinDbg debugger to a service after the service starts
This method is similar to the method that you can use to attach a debugger to a process and then debug a process.
Use the process ID of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug
1 To determine the process ID (PID) of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug, use one of the following methods.
• Method 1: Use the Task Manager
a. Right-click the taskbar, and then click Task Manager. The Windows Task Manager dialog box appears.
b. Click the Processes tab of the Windows Task Manager dialog box.
c. Under Image Name, click the image name of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug. Note the process ID of this process as specified by the value of the corresponding PID field.
• Method 2: Use the Task List Utility (tlist.exe)
a. Click Start, and then click Run. The Run dialog box appears.
b. In the Open box, type cmd, and then click OK.
c. At the command prompt, change the directory path to reflect the location of the tlist.exe file on your computer.

Note The tlist.exe file is typically located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows
d. At the command prompt, type tlist to list the image names and the process IDs of all processes that are currently running on your computer.

Note Make a note of the process ID of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug.
2 At a command prompt, change the directory path to reflect the location of the windbg.exe file on your computer.

Note If a command prompt is not open, follow steps a and b of Method 1. The windbg.exe file is typically located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows.
3 At the command prompt, type windbg –p ProcessID to attach the WinDbg debugger to the process that hosts the service that you want to debug.

Note ProcessID is a placeholder for the process ID of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug.

Use the image name of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug

You can use this method only if there is exactly one running instance of the process that hosts the service that you want to run. To do this, follow these steps:
1 Click Start, and then click Run. The Run dialog box appears.
2 In the Open box, type cmd, and then click OK to open a command prompt.
3 At the command prompt, change the directory path to reflect the location of the windbg.exe file on your computer.

Note The windbg.exe file is typically located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows.
4 At the command prompt, type windbg –pn ImageName to attach the WinDbg debugger to the process that hosts the service that you want to debug.

NoteImageName is a placeholder for the image name of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug. The "-pn" command-line option specifies that the ImageName command-line argument is the image name of a process.
back to the top
Start the WinDbg debugger and attach to the process that hosts the service that you want to debug

1 Start Windows Explorer.
2 Locate the windbg.exe file on your computer.

Note The windbg.exe file is typically located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows
3 Run the windbg.exe file to start the WinDbg debugger.
4 On the File menu, click Attach to a Process to display the Attach to Process dialog box.
5 Click to select the node that corresponds to the process that hosts the service that you want to debug, and then click OK.
6 In the dialog box that appears, click Yes to save base workspace information. Notice that you can now debug the disassembled code of your service.
Configure a service to start with the WinDbg debugger attached
You can use this method to debug services if you want to troubleshoot service-startup-related problems.
1 Configure the "Image File Execution" options. To do this, use one of the following methods:
• Method 1: Use the Global Flags Editor (gflags.exe)
a. Start Windows Explorer.
b. Locate the gflags.exe file on your computer.

Note The gflags.exe file is typically located in the following directory: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows.
c. Run the gflags.exe file to start the Global Flags Editor.
d. In the Image File Name text box, type the image name of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug. For example, if you want to debug a service that is hosted by a process that has MyService.exe as the image name, type MyService.exe.
e. Under Destination, click to select the Image File Options option.
f. Under Image Debugger Options, click to select the Debugger check box.
g. In the Debugger text box, type the full path of the debugger that you want to use. For example, if you want to use the WinDbg debugger to debug a service, you can type a full path that is similar to the following: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows\windbg.exe
h. Click Apply, and then click OK to quit the Global Flags Editor.
• Method 2: Use Registry Editor
a. Click Start, and then click Run. The Run dialog box appears.
b. In the Open box, type regedit, and then click OK to start Registry Editor.
c. Warning If you use Registry Editor incorrectly, you may cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall your operating system. Microsoft cannot guarantee that you can solve problems that result from using Registry Editor incorrectly. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

In Registry Editor, locate, and then right-click the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Image File Execution Options
d. Point to New, and then click Key. In the left pane of Registry Editor, notice that New Key #1 (the name of a new registry subkey) is selected for editing.
e. Type ImageName to replace New Key #1, and then press ENTER.

Note ImageName is a placeholder for the image name of the process that hosts the service that you want to debug. For example, if you want to debug a service that is hosted by a process that has MyService.exe as the image name, type MyService.exe.
f. Right-click the registry subkey that you created in step e.
g. Point to New, and then click String Value. In the right pane of Registry Editor, notice that New Value #1, the name of a new registry entry, is selected for editing.
h. Replace New Value #1 with Debugger, and then press ENTER.
i. Right-click the Debugger registry entry that you created in step h, and then click Modify. The Edit String dialog box appears.
j. In the Value data text box, type DebuggerPath, and then click OK.

Note DebuggerPath is a placeholder for the full path of the debugger that you want to use. For example, if you want to use the WinDbg debugger to debug a service, you can type a full path that is similar to the following: C:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows\windbg.exe
2 For the debugger window to appear on your desktop, and to interact with the debugger, make your service interactive. If you do not make your service interactive, the debugger will start but you cannot see it and you cannot issue commands. To make your service interactive, use one of the following methods:
• Method 1: Use the Services console
a. Click Start, and then point to Programs.
b. On the Programs menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Services. The Services console appears.
c. In the right pane of the Services console, right-click ServiceName, and then click Properties.

Note ServiceName is a placeholder for the name of the service that you want to debug.
d. On the Log On tab, click to select the Allow service to interact with desktop check box under Local System account, and then click OK.
• Method 2: Use Registry Editor
a. In Registry Editor, locate, and then click the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\ServiceName
Note Replace ServiceName with the name of the service that you want to debug. For example, if you want to debug a service named MyService, locate and then click the following registry key:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\MyService
b. Under the Name field in the right pane of Registry Editor, right-click Type, and then click Modify. The Edit DWORD Value dialog box appears.
c. Change the text in the Value data text box to the result of the binary OR operation with the binary value of the current text and the binary value, 0x00000100, as the two operands. The binary value, 0x00000100, corresponds to the SERVICE_INTERACTIVE_PROCESS constant that is defined in the WinNT.h header file on your computer. This constant specifies that a service is interactive in nature.
3 When a service starts, the service communicates to the Service Control Manager how long the service must have to start (the time-out period for the service). If the Service Control Manager does not receive a "service started" notice from the service within this time-out period, the Service Control Manager terminates the process that hosts the service. This time-out period is typically less than 30 seconds. If you do not adjust this time-out period, the Service Control Manager ends the process and the attached debugger while you are trying to debug. To adjust this time-out period, follow these steps:
a. In Registry Editor, locate, and then right-click the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control
b. Point to New, and then click DWORD Value. In the right pane of Registry Editor, notice that New Value #1 (the name of a new registry entry) is selected for editing.
c. Type ServicesPipeTimeout to replace New Value #1, and then press ENTER.
d. Right-click the ServicesPipeTimeout registry entry that you created in step c, and then click Modify. The Edit DWORD Value dialog box appears.
e. In the Value data text box, type TimeoutPeriod, and then click OK

Note TimeoutPeriod is a placeholder for the value of the time-out period (in milliseconds) that you want to set for the service. For example, if you want to set the time-out period to 24 hours (86400000 milliseconds), type 86400000.
f. Restart the computer. You must restart the computer for Service Control Manager to apply this change.
4 Start your Windows service. To do this, follow these steps:
a. Click Start, and then point to Programs.
b. On the Programs menu, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Services. The Services console appears.
c. In the right pane of the Services console, right-click ServiceName, and then click Start.

Note ServiceName is a placeholder for the name of the service that you want to debug.

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SharePoint Server Interview Questions(Part2)

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SharePoint Server Interview Questions (Part2)

19) What is the IDesignTimeHtmlProvider interface, and when can you use it in WebParts?

The IDesignTimeHtmlProvider interface uses the function GetDesignTimeHtml() which can contain your relevant render methods. It was helpful to use in 2003 since it allowed your WebPart to have a preview while a page was edited in FrontPage with the Webpart on it, because the GetDesignTimeHtml() method contains the HTML for the designer to render.

20) What are WebPart properties, and what are some of the attributes you see when declaring WebPart properties in code?

WebPart properties are just like ASP.NET control properties, they are used to interact with and specify attributes that should be applied to a WebPart by a user. Some of the attributes you see with ASP.NET 2.0 properties are WebDescription, WebDisplayName, Category, Personalizable, and WebBrowsable. Although most of these properties come from the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts class, ones like Category come out of System.ComponentModel namespace.

21) Why are properties important in WebPart development, and how have you exploited them in past development projects? What must each custom property have?

Properties are important because WebParts allow levels of personalization for each user. WebPart properties make it possible for a user to interact, adjust, and increase overall experience value with the programmatic assets that you develop without having the need to use an external editor or right any code. A very simple example of exploiting a property would be something like allowing the user to change the text on the WebPart design interface so that they can display whatever string of text they desire.

Each custom property that you have must have the appropriate get and set accessor methods.

22) What are ClassResources? How do you reference and deploy resources with an ASP.NET 2.0 WebPart?

ClassResources are used when inheriting from the SharePoint.WebPart.WebPartPages.WebPart base class, and are defined in the SharePoint solution file as things that should be stored in the wpresources directory on the server. It is a helpful directory to use in order to deploy custom images. In ASP.NET 2.0, typically things such as images are referenced by embedding them as resources within an assembly. The good part about ClassResources is they can help to eliminate recompiles to change small interface adjustments or alterations to external JavaScript files.

23) What is a SharePoint Solution File? How does it differ from WebPart .cab files in legacy development? What does it contain?

A SharePoint solution file is essentially a .cabinet file with all a developers ustom componets suffixed with a .wsp extension that aids in deployment. The big difference with SharePoint solution files is is that a solution:

allows deployment to all WFE’s in a farm

is highly manageable from the interface allowing deployment, retraction, and versioning

Can package all types of assets like site definitions, feature definitions (and associated components), Webparts, etc.

Can provide Code Access Security provisioning to avoid GAC deployments

Just to name a few things…

24) What is a .ddf file and what does it have to do with SharePoint Solution creation?

A .ddf file is a data directive file and is used when building the SharePoint solution bundle specifying the source files and their destination locations. The important thing for someone to understand is that the .ddf file will be passed as a parameter to the MAKECAB utility to orchestrate construction of the SharePoint solution fiel.

25) What file does a SharePoint solution package use to orchestrate (describe) its packaged contents?

The solution Manifest.XML file.

26) What deployment mechanism can you use to instigate Code Access Security attributes for your WebParts?

SharePoint solution files can add in order to handle code access security deployment issues. This is done in the element in the SharePoint solution manifest.XML, which makes it easier to get assemblies the appropriate permissions in order to operate in the bin directory of the web application.

27) What is a SharePoint Feature? What files are used to define a feature?

A SharePoint Feature is a functional component that can be activated and deactivate at various scopes throughout a SharePoint instances, such as at the farm, site collection, web, etc. Features have their own receiver architecture, which allow you to trap events such as when a feature is installing, uninstalling, activated, or deactivated. They are helpful because they allow ease of upgrades and versioning.

The two files that are used to define a feature are the feature.xml and manifest file. The feature XML file defines the actual feature and will make SharePoint aware of the installed feature. The manifest file contains details about the feature such as functionality.

Side Question: I got asked how the introduction of features has changed the concept of site definitions. SharePoint features are important when understanding the architecture of site definitions, since the ONET.XML file has been vastly truncated since it has several feature stapled on it.

28) What types of SharePoint assets can be deployed with a SharePoint feature?

Features can do a lot. For example, you could deploy

Simple site customizations

Custom site navigation

WebParts

pages

list types

list instances

event handlers

workflows

custom actions

just to name a few….

29) What are event receivers?

Event receivers are classes that inherit from the SpItemEventReciever or SPListEventReciever base class (both of which derive out of the abstract base class SPEventRecieverBase), and provide the option of responding to events as they occur within SharePoint, such as adding an item or deleting an item.

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Framework Support

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Framework Support
The .NET platform includes such an eCommerce framework called Commerce Server. At this point, there is no equivalent vendor-neutral framework in the J2EE space. With J2EE, you should assume that you will be building your new eCommerce solution from scratch
Moreover, no matter what [J2EE] vendor you choose, if you expect a component framework that will allow you to quickly field complete e-business applications, you are in for a frustrating experience
Language
In the language arena, the choice is about as simple as it gets. J2EE supports Java, and only Java. It will not support any other language in the foreseeable future. The .NET platform supports every language except Java (although it does support a language that is syntactically and functionally equivalent to Java, C#). In fact, given the importance of the .NET platform as a language independent vehicle, it is likely that any language that comes out in the near future will include support for the .NET platform.
Some companies are under the impression that J2EE supports other languages. Although both IBM's WebSphere and BEA's WebLogic support other languages, neither does it through their J2EE technology. There are only two official ways in the J2EE platform to access other languages, one through the Java Native Interface and the other through CORBA interoperability. Sun recommends the later approach. As Sun's Distinguished Scientist and Java Architect Rick Cattell said in a recent interview.
Portability
The reason that operating system portability is a possibility with J2EE is not so much because of any inherent portability of J2EE, as it is that most of the J2EE vendors support multiple operating systems. Therefore as long as one sticks with a given J2EE vendor and a given database vendor, moving from one operating system to another should be possible. This is probably the single most important benefit in favor of J2EE over the .NET platform, which is limited to the Windows operating system. It is worth noting, however, that Microsoft has submitted the specifications for C# and a subset of the .NET Framework (called the common language infrastructure) to ECMA, the group that standardizes JavaScript.
J2EE offers an acceptable solution to ISVs when the product must be marketed to non-Windows customers, particularly when the J2EE platform itself can be bundled with the ISV's product as an integrated offering.
If the primary customer base for the ISV is Windows customers, then the .NET platform should be chosen. It will provide much better performance at a much lower cost.

Client device independence
The major difference being that with Java, it is the presentation tier programmer that determines the ultimate HTML that will be delivered to the client, and with .NET, it is a Visual Studio.NET control.
This Java approach has three problems. First, it requires a lot of code on the presentation tier, since every possible thin client system requires a different code path. Second, it is very difficult to test the code with every possible thin client system. Third, it is very difficult to add new thin clients to an existing application, since to do so involves searching through, and modifying a tremendous amount of presentation tier logic.
The .NET Framework approach is to write device independent code that interacts with visual controls. It is the control, not the programmer, that is responsible for determining what HTML to deliver, based on the capabilities of the client device.. In the .NET Framework model, one can forget that such a thing as HTML even exists! Contd ....
Conclusion
Sun's J2EE vision is based on a family of specifications that can be implemented by many vendors. It is open in the sense that any company can license and implement the technology, but closed in the sense that it is controlled by a single vendor, and a self contained architectural island with very limited ability to interact outside of itself. One of J2EE's major disadvantages is that the choice of the platform dictates the use of a single programming language, and a programming language that is not well suited for most businesses. One of J2EE's major advantages is that most of the J2EE vendors do offer operating system portability.
Microsoft's .NET platform vision is a family of products rather than specifications, with specifications used primarily to define points of interoperability. The major disadvantage of this approach is that if is limited to the Windows platform, so applications written for the .NET platform can only be run on .NET platforms. Their are several important advantages to the .NET platform:
* The cost of developing applications is much lower, since standard business languages can be used and device independent presentation tier logic can be written.
* The cost of running applications is much lower, since commodity hardware platforms (at 1/5 the cost of their Unix counterparts) can be used.
* The ability to scale up is much greater, with the proved ability to support at least ten times the number of clients any J2EE platform has shown itself able to support.
* Interoperability is much stronger, with industry standard eCollaboration built into the platform.
What are the Main Features of .NET platform?
Features of .NET Platform are :-
Common Language Runtime
Explains the features and benefits of the common language runtime, a run-time environment that manages the execution of code and provides services that simplify the development process.
Assemblies
Defines the concept of assemblies, which are collections of types and resources that form logical units of functionality. Assemblies are the fundamental units of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions.
Application Domains
Explains how to use application domains to provide isolation between applications.
Runtime Hosts
Describes the runtime hosts supported by the .NET Framework, including ASP.NET, Internet Explorer, and shell executables.
Common Type System
Identifies the types supported by the common language runtime.
Metadata and Self-Describing Components
Explains how the .NET Framework simplifies component interoperation by allowing compilers to emit additional declarative information, or metadata, into all modules and assemblies.
Cross-Language Interoperability
Explains how managed objects created in different programming languages can interact with one another.
.NET Framework Security
Describes mechanisms for protecting resources and code from unauthorized code and unauthorized users.
.NET Framework Class Library
Introduces the library of types provided by the .NET Framework, which expedites and optimizes the development process and gives you access to system functionality.
What is the use of JIT ?
JIT (Just - In - Time) is a compiler which converts MSIL code to Native Code (ie.. CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture).
Because the common language runtime supplies a JIT compiler for each supported CPU architecture, developers can write a set of MSIL that can be JIT-compiled and run on computers with different architectures. However, your managed code will run only on a specific operating system if it calls platform-specific native APIs, or a platform-specific class library.
JIT compilation takes into account the fact that some code might never get called during execution. Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls. The loader creates and attaches a stub to each of a type's methods when the type is loaded. On the initial call to the method, the stub passes control to the JIT compiler, which converts the MSIL for that method into native code and modifies the stub to direct execution to the location of the native code. Subsequent calls of the JIT-compiled method proceed directly to the native code that was previously generated, reducing the time it takes to JIT-compile and run the code.
What meant of assembly & global assembly cache (gac) & Meta data.
Assembly :-- An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET based application. It is a collection of functionality that is built, versioned, and deployed as a single implementation unit (as one or more files). All managed types and resources are marked either as accessible only within their implementation unit, or as accessible by code outside that unit. It overcomes the problem of 'dll Hell'.The .NET Framework uses assemblies as the fundamental unit for several purposes:
• Security
• Type Identity
• Reference Scope
• Versioning
• Deployment
Global Assembly Cache :-- Assemblies can be shared among multiple applications on the machine by registering them in global Assembly cache(GAC). GAC is a machine wide a local cache of assemblies maintained by the .NET Framework. We can register the assembly to global assembly cache by using gacutil command.
We can Navigate to the GAC directory, C:\winnt\Assembly in explore. In the tools menu select the cache properties; in the windows displayed you can set the memory limit in MB used by the GAC
MetaData :--Assemblies have Manifests. This Manifest contains Metadata information of the Module/Assembly as well as it contains detailed Metadata of other assemblies/modules references (exported). It's the Assembly Manifest which differentiates between an Assembly and a Module.
What are the mobile devices supported by .net platform
The Microsoft .NET Compact Framework is designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), and embedded devices. The easiest way to develop and test a Smart Device Application is to use an emulator.
These devices are divided into two main divisions:
1) Those that are directly supported by .NET (Pocket PCs, i-Mode phones, and WAP devices)
2) Those that are not (Palm OS and J2ME-powered devices).
What is GUID , why we use it and where?
GUID :-- GUID is Short form of Globally Unique Identifier, a unique 128-bit number that is produced by the Windows OS or by some Windows applications to identify a particular component, application, file, database entry, and/or user. For instance, a Web site may generate a GUID and assign it to a user's browser to record and track the session. A GUID is also used in a Windows registry to identify COM DLLs. Knowing where to look in the registry and having the correct GUID yields a lot information about a COM object (i.e., information in the type library, its physical location, etc.). Windows also identifies user accounts by a username (computer/domain and username) and assigns it a GUID. Some database administrators even will use GUIDs as primary key values in databases.
GUIDs can be created in a number of ways, but usually they are a combination of a few unique settings based on specific point in time (e.g., an IP address, network MAC address, clock date/time, etc.).
Describe the difference between inline and code behind - which is best in a loosely coupled solution
ASP.NET supports two modes of page development: Page logic code that is written inside runat="server"> blocks within an .aspx file and dynamically compiled the first time the page is requested on the server. Page logic code that is written within an external class that is compiled prior to deployment on a server and linked ""behind"" the .aspx file at run time.
Whats MSIL, and why should my developers need an appreciation of it if at all?
When compiling the source code to managed code, the compiler translates the source into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL). This is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can efficiently be converted to native code. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a translation used as the output of a number of compilers. It is the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The Common Language Runtime includes a JIT compiler for the conversion of MSIL to native code.
Before Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) can be executed it, must be converted by the .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code. This is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler. Rather than using time and memory to convert all of the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code. It converts the MSIL as needed whilst executing, then caches the resulting native code so its accessible for any subsequent calls.
How many .NET languages can a single .NET DLL contain?
One
What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-Behind class?
Server
Whats an assembly?
Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly.
How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
Unlimited.
What is the difference between string and String ?
No difference
What is manifest?
It is the metadata that describes the assemblies.
What is metadata?
Metadata is machine-readable information about a resource, or ""data about data."" Such information might include details on content, format, size, or other characteristics of a data
source. In .NET, metadata includes type definitions, version information, external assembly references, and other standardized information.
What are the types of assemblies?
There are four types of assemblies in .NET:
Static assemblies
These are the .NET PE files that you create at compile time.
Dynamic assemblies
These are PE-formatted, in-memory assemblies that you dynamically create at runtime using the classes in the System.Reflection.Emit namespace.
Private assemblies
These are static assemblies used by a specific application.
Public or shared assemblies
These are static assemblies that must have a unique shared name and can be used by any application.
An application uses a private assembly by referring to the assembly using a static path or through an XML-based application configuration file. While the CLR doesn't enforce versioning policies-checking whether the correct version is used-for private assemblies, it ensures that an
application uses the correct shared assemblies with which the application was built. Thus, an application uses a specific shared assembly by referring to the specific shared assembly, and the CLR ensures that the correct version is loaded at runtime.
In .NET, an assembly is the smallest unit to which you can associate a version number;
What are delegates?where are they used ?
A delegate defines a reference type that can be used to encapsulate a method with a specific signature. A delegate instance encapsulates a static or an instance method. Delegates are roughly similar to function pointers in C++; however, delegates are type-safe and secure.
When do you use virutal keyword?.
When we need to override a method of the base class in the sub class, then we give the virtual keyword in the base class method. This makes the method in the base class to be overridable. Methods, properties, and indexers can be virtual, which means that their implementation can be overridden in derived classes.
What are class access modifiers ?
Access modifiers are keywords used to specify the declared accessibility of a member or a type. This section introduces the four access modifiers:
• Public - Access is not restricted.
• Protected - Access is limited to the containing class or types derived from the containing class.
• Internal - Access is limited to the current assembly.
• Protected inertnal - Access is limited to the current assembly or types derived • from the containing class.
• Private - Access is limited to the containing type.
What Is Boxing And Unboxing?
Boxing :- Boxing is an implicit conversion of a value type to the type object type
Eg:-
Consider the following declaration of a value-type variable:
int i = 123;
object o = (object) i;
Boxing Conversion
UnBoxing :- Unboxing is an explicit conversion from the type object to a value type
Eg:
int i = 123; // A value type
object box = i; // Boxing
int j = (int)box; // Unboxing
What is Value type and refernce type in .Net?.
Value Type : A variable of a value type always contains a value of that type. The assignment to a variable of a value type creates a copy of the assigned value, while the assignment to a variable of a reference type creates a copy of the reference but not of the referenced object.
The value types consist of two main categories:
* Stuct Type
* Enumeration Type
Reference Type :Variables of reference types, referred to as objects, store references to the actual data. This section introduces the following keywords used to declare reference types:
* Class
* Interface
* Delegate
This section also introduces the following built-in reference types:
* object
* string
What is the difference between structures and enumeration?.
Unlike classes, structs are value types and do not require heap allocation. A variable of a struct type directly contains the data of the struct, whereas a variable of a class type contains a reference to the data. They are derived from System.ValueType class.
Enum->An enum type is a distinct type that declares a set of named constants.They are strongly typed constants. They are unique types that allow to declare symbolic names to integral values. Enums are value types, which means they contain their own value, can't inherit or be inherited from and assignment copies the value of one enum to another.
public enum Grade
{
A,
B,
C
}

What is namespaces?.
Namespace is a logical naming scheme for group related types.Some class types that logically belong together they can be put into a common namespace. They prevent namespace collisions and they provide scoping. They are imported as "using" in C# or "Imports" in Visual Basic. It seems as if these directives specify a particular assembly, but they don't. A namespace can span multiple assemblies, and an assembly can define multiple namespaces. When the compiler needs the definition for a class type, it tracks through each of the different imported namespaces to the type name and searches each referenced assembly until it is found.
Namespaces can be nested. This is very similar to packages in Java as far as scoping is concerned.

How do you create shared assemblies?.
Just look through the definition of Assemblies..
* An Assembly is a logical unit of code
* Assembly physically exist as DLLs or EXEs
* One assembly can contain one or more files
* The constituent files can include any file types like image files, text files etc. along with DLLs or EXEs
* When you compile your source code by default the exe/dll generated is actually an assembly
* Unless your code is bundled as assembly it can not be used in any other application
* When you talk about version of a component you are actually talking about version of the assembly to which the component belongs.
* Every assembly file contains information about itself. This information is called as Assembly Manifest.
Following steps are involved in creating shared assemblies :
* Create your DLL/EXE source code
* Generate unique assembly name using SN utility
* Sign your DLL/EXE with the private key by modifying AssemblyInfo file
* Compile your DLL/EXE
* Place the resultant DLL/EXE in global assembly cache using AL utility

What is global assembly cache?
Each computer where the common language runtime is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. The global assembly cache stores assemblies specifically designated to be shared by several applications on the computer.
There are several ways to deploy an assembly into the global assembly cache:
• Use an installer designed to work with the global assembly cache. This is the preferred option for installing assemblies into the global assembly cache.
• Use a developer tool called the Global Assembly Cache tool (Gacutil.exe), provided by the .NET Framework SDK.
• Use Windows Explorer to drag assemblies into the cache.
What is MSIL?.
When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Before code can be run, MSIL must be converted to CPU-specific code, usually by a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. Because the common language runtime supplies one or more JIT compilers for each computer architecture it supports, the same set of MSIL can be JIT-compiled and run on any supported architecture.
When a compiler produces MSIL, it also produces metadata. Metadata describes the types in your code, including the definition of each type, the signatures of each type's members, the members that your code references, and other data that the runtime uses at execution time. The MSIL and metadata are contained in a portable executable (PE) file that is based on and extends the published Microsoft PE and common object file format (COFF) used historically for executable content. This file format, which accommodates MSIL or native code as well as metadata, enables the operating system to recognize common language runtime images. The presence of metadata in the file along with the MSIL enables your code to describe itself, which means that there is no need for type libraries or Interface Definition Language (IDL). The runtime locates and extracts the metadata from the file as needed during execution.
What is Jit compilers?.how many are available in clr?
Just-In-Time compiler- it converts the language that you write in .Net into machine language that a computer can understand. there are tqo types of JITs one is memory optimized & other is performace optimized.
What is tracing?Where it used.Explain few methods available
Tracing refers to collecting information about the application while it is running. You use tracing information to troubleshoot an application.
Tracing allows us to observe and correct programming errors. Tracing enables you to record information in various log files about the errors that might occur at run time. You can analyze these log files to find the cause of the errors.
In .NET we have objects called Trace Listeners. A listener is an object that receives the trace output and outputs it somewhere; that somewhere could be a window in your development environment, a file on your hard drive, a Windows Event log, a SQL Server or Oracle database, or any other customized data store.
The System.Diagnostics namespace provides the interfaces, classes, enumerations and structures that are used for tracing The System.Diagnostics namespace provides two classes named Trace and Debug that are used for writing errors and application execution information in logs.
All Trace Listeners have the following functions. Functionality of these functions is same except that the target media for the tracing output is determined by the Trace Listener.
Method Name
Result Fail Outputs the specified text with the Call Stack.
Write Outputs the specified text.
WriteLine Outputs the specified text and a carriage return.
Flush Flushes the output buffer to the target media.
Close Closes the output stream in order to not receive the tracing/debugging output.
How to set the debug mode?
Debug Mode for ASP.NET applications - To set ASP.NET appplication in debugging mode, edit the application's web.config and assign the "debug" attribute in <> section to "true" as show below:
<>
<>
< defaultlanguage="vb" debug="true">
....
...
..
< / configuration >
This case-sensitive attribute 'debug tells ASP.NET to generate symbols for dynamically generated files and enables the
debugger to attach to the ASP.NET application. ASP.NET will detect this change automatically, without the need to restart the server. Debug Mode for ASP.NET Webservices - Debugging an XML Web service created with ASP.NET is similar to the debugging an ASP.NET Web application.
What is the property available to check if the page posted or not?
The Page_Load event handler in the page checks for IsPostBack property value, to ascertain whether the page is posted. The Page.IsPostBack gets a value indicating whether the page is being loaded in response to the client postback, or it is for the first time. The value of Page.IsPostBack is True, if the page is being loaded in response to the client postback; while its value is False, when the page is loaded for the first time. The Page.IsPostBack property facilitates execution of certain routine in Page_Load, only once (for e.g. in Page load, we need to set default value in controls, when page is loaded for the first time. On post back, we check for true value for IsPostback value and then invoke server-side code to
update data).
Which are the abstract classes available under system.xml namespace?
The System.XML namespace provides XML related processing ability in .NET framework. XmlReader and XMLWriter are the two abstract classes at the core of .NET Framework XML classes:
1. XmlReader provides a fast, forward-only, read-only cursor for processing an XML document stream.
2. XmlWriter provides an interface for producing XML document streams that conform to the W3C's XML standards.
Both XmlReader and XmlWriter are abstract base classes, which define the functionality that all derived classes must support.
Is it possible to use multipe inheritance in .net?
Multiple Inheritance is an ability to inherit from more than one base class i.e. ability of a class to have more than one superclass, by inheriting from different sources and thus combine separately-defined behaviors in a single class. There are two types of multiple inheritance: multiple type/interface inheritance and multiple implementation inheritance. C# & VB.NET supports only multiple type/interface inheritance, i.e.
you can derive an class/interface from multiple interfaces. There is no support for multiple implementation inheritance in .NET. That means a class can only derived from one class.
What are the derived classes from xmlReader and xmlWriter?
Both XmlReader and XmlWriter are abstract base classes, which define the functionality that all derived classes must support.
There are three concrete implementations of XmlReader:
1.XmlTextReader
2.XmlNodeReader
3.XmlValidatingReader
There are two concrete implementations of XmlWriter:
1.XmlTextWriter
2.XmlNodeWriter
XmlTextReader and XmlTextWriter support reading data to/from text-based stream, while XmlNodeReader and XmlNodeWriter are designed for working with in-memory DOM tree structure. The custom readers and writers can also be developed to extend the built-in functionality of XmlReader and XmlWriter.
What is managed and unmanaged code?
The .NET framework provides several core run-time services to the programs that run within it - for example exception handling and security. For these services to work, the code must provide a minimum level of information to the runtime. i.e., code executing under the control of the CLR is called managed code. For example, any code written in C# or Visual Basic .NET is managed code.
Code that runs outside the CLR is referred to as "unmanaged code." COM components, ActiveX components, and Win32 API functions are examples of unmanaged code.
How you deploy .NET assemblies?
One way is simply use xcopy. others are use and the setup projects in .net. and one more way is use of nontuch deployment.
What is Globalizationa and Localization ?
Globalization is the process of creating an application that meets the needs of users from multiple cultures. It includes using the correct
currency, date and time format, calendar, writing direction, sorting rules, and other issues. Accommodating these cultural differences in an application is called localization.Using classes of System.Globalization namespace, you can set application's current culture.
This can be achieved by using any of the following 3 approaches.
1. Detect and redirect
2. Run-time adjustment
3. Using Satellite assemblies.

Whate are Resource Files ? How are they used in .NET?
Resource files are the files containing data that is logically deployed with an application.These files can contain data in a number of formats including strings, images and persisted objects. It has the main advantage of If we store data in these files then we don't need to compile these if the data get changed. In .NET we basically require them storing culture specific informations by localizing application's resources. You can deploy your resources using satellite assemblies.
Difference between Dispose and Finallize method?
Finalize method is used to free the memory used by some unmanaged resources like window handles (HWND). It's similar to the destructor syntax in C#. The GC calls this method when it founds no more references to the object. But, In some cases we may need release the memory used by the resources explicitely.To release the memory explicitly we need to implement the Dispose method of IDisposable interface.
What is encapsulation ?
Encapsulation is the ability to hide the internal workings of an object's behavior and its data. For instance, let's say you have a object named Bike and this object has a method named start(). When you create an instance of a Bike object and call its start() method you are not worried about what happens to accomplish this, you just want to make sure the state of the bike is changed to 'running' afterwards. This kind of behavior hiding is encapsulation and it makes programming much easier.
How can you prevent your class to be inherated further?
By setting Sealed - Key word
public sealed class Planet
{
//code goes here
}
class Moon:Planet
{
//Not allowed as base class is sealed
}


What is GUID and why we need to use it and in what condition? How this is created.
A GUID is a 128-bit integer (16 bytes) that can be used across all computers and networks wherever a unique identifier is required. Such an identifier has a very low probability of being duplicated. Visual Studio .NET IDE has a utility under the tools menu to generate GUIDs.
Why do you need to serialize.?
We need to serialize the object,if you want to pass object from one computer/application domain to another.Process of converting complex objects into stream of bytes that can be persisted or transported.Namespace for serialization is System.Runtime.Serialization.The ISerializable interface allows you to make any class Serializable..NET framework features 2 serializing method.
1.Binary Serialization 2.XML Serialization
What is inline schema, how does it works?
Schemas can be included inside of XML file is called Inline Schemas.This is useful when it is inconvenient to physically seprate the schema and the XML document.A schema is an XML document that defines the structure, constraints, data types, and relationships of the elements that constitute the data contained inside the XML document or in another XML document.Schema can be an external file which uses the XSD or XDR extension called external schema. Inline schema can take place even when validation is turned off.
Describe the advantages of writing a managed code application instead of unmanaged one. What's involved in certain piece of code being managed?
"Advantage includes automatic garbage collection,memory management,security,type checking,versioning
Managed code is compiled for the .NET run-time environment. It runs in the Common Language Runtime (CLR), which is the heart of the .NET Framework. The CLR provides services such as security,
memory management, and cross-language integration. Managed applications written to take advantage of the features of the CLR perform more efficiently and safely, and take better advantage of developers existing expertise in languages that support the .NET Framework.
Unmanaged code includes all code written before the .NET Framework was introduced—this includes code written to use COM, native Win32, and Visual Basic 6. Because it does not run inside the .NET environment, unmanaged code cannot make use of any .NET managed facilities."
What are multicast delegates ? give me an example ?
Delegate that can have more than one element in its invocation List.
using System;
namespace SampleMultiCastDelegate
{
class MultiCast
{
public delegate string strMultiCast(string s);
}
}

MainClass defines the static methods having same signature as delegate.
using System;
namespace SampleMultiCastDelegate
{

public class MainClass
{
public MainClass()
{
}
public static string Jump(string s)
{
Console.WriteLine("Jump");
return String.Empty;
}
public static string Run(string s)
{
Console.WriteLine("Run");
return String.Empty;
}
public static string Walk(string s)
{
Console.WriteLine("Walk");
return String.Empty;
}
}
}

The Main class:
using System;
using System.Threading;
namespace SampleMultiCastDelegate
{

public class MainMultiCastDelegate
{
public static void Main()
{
MultiCast.strMultiCast Run,Walk,Jump;
MultiCast.strMultiCast myDelegate;
///here mydelegate used the Combine method of System.MulticastDelegate
///and the delegates combine
myDelegate=(MultiCast.strMultiCast)System.Delegate.Combine(Run,Walk);

}
}
}
Can a nested object be used in Serialization ?
Yes. If a class that is to be serialized contains references to objects of other classes, and if those classes have been marked as serializable, then their objects are serialized too.
Difference between int and int32 ?
Both are same. System.Int32 is a .NET class. Int is an alias name for System.Int32.
Describe the difference between a Thread and a Process?
A Process is an instance of an running application. And a thread is the Execution stream of the Process. A process can have multiple Thread.
When a process starts a specific memory area is allocated to it. When there is multiple thread in a process, each thread gets a memory for storing the variables in it and plus they can access to the global variables which is common for all the thread. Eg.A Microsoft Word is a Application. When you open a word file,an instance of the Word starts and a process is allocated to this instance which has one thread.
What is the difference between an EXE and a DLL?
You can create an objects of Dll but not of the EXE.
Dll is an In-Process Component whereas EXE is an OUt-Process Component.
Exe is for single use whereas you can use Dll for multiple use.
Exe can be started as standalone where dll cannot be.
What is strong-typing versus weak-typing? Which is preferred? Why?
Strong typing implies that the types of variables involved in operations are associated to the variable, checked at compile-time, and require explicit conversion; weak typing implies that they are associated to the value, checked at run-time, and are implicitly converted as required. (Which is preferred is a disputable point, but I personally prefer strong typing because I like my errors to be found as soon as possible.)
What is a PID? How is it useful when troubleshooting a system?
PID is the process Id of the application in Windows. Whenever a process starts running in the Windows environment, it is associated with an individual process Id or PID.
The PID (Process ID) a unique number for each item on the Process Tab, Image Name list. How do you get the PID to appear? In Task Manger, select the View menu, then select columns and check PID (Process Identifier).
In Linux, PID is used to debug a process explicitly. However we cannot do this in a windows environment.
Microsoft has launched a SDK called as Microsoft Operations Management (MOM). This uses the PID to find out which dll’s have been loaded by a process in the memory. This is essentially helpful in situations where the Process which has a memory leak is to be traced to a erring dll. Personally I have never used a PID, our Windows debugger does the things required to find out.
What is the GAC? What problem does it solve?
Each computer where the common language runtime is installed has a machine-wide code cache called the global assembly cache. The global assembly cache stores assemblies that are to be shared by several applications on the computer. This area is typically the folder under windows or winnt in the machine.
All the assemblies that need to be shared across applications need to be done through the Global assembly Cache only. However it is not necessary to install assemblies into the global assembly cache to make them accessible to COM interop or unmanaged code.
There are several ways to deploy an assembly into the global assembly cache:
• Use an installer designed to work with the global assembly cache. This is the preferred option for installing assemblies into the global assembly cache.
• Use a developer tool called the Global Assembly Cache tool (Gacutil.exe), provided by the .NET Framework SDK.
• Use Windows Explorer to drag assemblies into the cache.
GAC solves the problem of DLL Hell and DLL versioning. Unlike earlier situations, GAC can hold two assemblies of the same name but different version. This ensures that the applications which access a particular assembly continue to access the same assembly even if another version of that assembly is installed on that machine.
Describe what an Interface is and how it’s different from a Class.
An interface is a structure of code which is similar to a class. An interface is a prototype for a class and is useful from a logical design perspective. Interfaces provide a means to define the protocols for a class without worrying about the implementation details. The syntax for creating interfaces follows:
interface Identifier {
InterfaceBody
}
Identifier is the name of the interface and InterfaceBody refers to the abstract methods and static final variables that make up the interface. Because it is assumed that all the methods in an interface are abstract, it isn't necessary to use the abstract keyword
An interface is a description of some of the members available from a class. In practice, the syntax typically looks similar to a class definition, except that there's no code defined for the methods — just their name, the arguments passed and the type of the value returned.
So what good is it? None by itself. But you create an interface so that classes will implement it.
But what does it mean to implement an interface. The interface acts as a contract or promise. If a class implements an interface, then it must have the properties and methods of the interface defined in the class. This is enforced by the compiler.
Broadly the differentiators between classes and interfaces is as follows
• Interface should not have any implementation.
• Interface can not create any instance.
• Interface should provide high level abstraction from the implementation.
• Interface can have multiple inheritances.
• Default access level of the interface is public.
What is the difference between XML Web Services using ASMX and .NET Remoting using SOAP?
ASP.NET Web services and .NET Remoting provide a full suite of design options for cross-process and cross-plaform communication in distributed applications. In general, ASP.NET Web services provide the highest levels of interoperability with full support for WSDL and SOAP over HTTP, while .NET Remoting is designed for common language runtime type-system fidelity and supports additional data format and communication channels. Hence if we looking cross-platform communication than web services is the choice coz for .NET remoting .Net framework is requried which may or may not present for the other platform.
Serialization and Metadata
ASP.NET Web services rely on the System.Xml.Serialization.XmlSerializer class to marshal data to and from SOAP messages at runtime. For metadata, they generate WSDL and XSD definitions that describe what their messages contain. The reliance on pure WSDL and XSD makes ASP.NET Web services metadata portable; it expresses data structures in a way that other Web service toolkits on different platforms and with different programming models can understand. In some cases, this imposes constraints on the types you can expose from a Web service—XmlSerializer will only marshal things that can be expressed in XSD. Specifically, XmlSerializer will not marshal object graphs and it has limited support for container types.
.NET Remoting relies on the pluggable implementations of the IFormatter interface used by the System.Runtime.Serialization engine to marshal data to and from messages. There are two standard formatters, System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Binary.BinaryFormatter and System.Runtime.Serialization.Formatters.Soap.SoapFormatter. The BinaryFormatter and SoapFormatter, as the names suggest, marshal types in binary and SOAP format respectively. For metadata, .NET Remoting relies on the common language runtime assemblies, which contain all the relevant information about the data types they implement, and expose it via reflection. The reliance on the assemblies for metadata makes it easy to preserve the full runtime type-system fidelity. As a result, when the .NET Remoting plumbing marshals data, it includes all of a class's public and private members; handles object graphs correctly; and supports all container types (e.g., System.Collections.Hashtable). However, the reliance on runtime metadata also limits the reach of a .NET Remoting system—a client has to understand .NET constructs in order to communicate with a .NET Remoting endpoint. In addition to pluggable formatters, the .NET Remoting layer supports pluggable channels, which abstract away the details of how messages are sent. There are two standard channels, one for raw TCP and one for HTTP. Messages can be sent over either channel independent of format.
Distributed Application Design: ASP.NET Web Services vs. .NET Remoting
ASP.NET Web services favor the XML Schema type system, and provide a simple programming model with broad cross-platform reach. .NET Remoting favors the runtime type system, and provides a more complex programming model with much more limited reach. This essential difference is the primary factor in determining which technology to use. However, there are a wide range of other design factors, including transport protocols, host processes, security, performance, state management, and support for transactions to consider as well.
Security
Since ASP.NET Web services rely on HTTP, they integrate with the standard Internet security infrastructure. ASP.NET leverages the security features available with IIS to provide strong support for standard HTTP authentication schemes including Basic, Digest, digital certificates, and even Microsoft® .NET Passport. (You can also use Windows Integrated authentication, but only for clients in a trusted domain.) One advantage of using the available HTTP authentication schemes is that no code change is required in a Web service; IIS performs authentication before the ASP.NET Web services are called. ASP.NET also provides support for .NET Passport-based authentication and other custom authentication schemes. ASP.NET supports access control based on target URLs, and by integrating with the .NET code access security (CAS) infrastructure. SSL can be used to ensure private communication over the wire.
Although these standard transport-level techniques to secure Web services are quite effective, they only go so far. In complex scenarios involving multiple Web services in different trust domains, you have to build custom ad hoc solutions. Microsoft and others are working on a set of security specifications that build on the extensibility of SOAP messages to offer message-level security capabilities. One of these is the XML Web Services Security Language (WS-Security), which defines a framework for message-level credential transfer, message integrity, and message confidentiality.
As noted in the previous section, the .NET Remoting plumbing does not secure cross-process invocations in the general case. A .NET Remoting endpoint hosted in IIS with ASP.NET can leverage all the same security features available to ASP.NET Web services, including support for secure communication over the wire using SSL. If you are using the TCP channel or the HTTP channel hosted in processes other than aspnet_wp.exe, you have to implement authentication, authorization and privacy mechanisms yourself.
One additional security concern is the ability to execute code from a semi-trusted environment without having to change the default security policy. ASP.NET Web Services client proxies work in these environments, but .NET Remoting proxies do not. In order to use a .NET Remoting proxy from a semi-trusted environment, you need a special serialization permission that is not given to code loaded from your intranet or the Internet by default. If you want to use a .NET Remoting client from within a semi-trusted environment, you have to alter the default security policy for code loaded from those zones. In situations where you are connecting to systems from clients running in a sandbox—like a downloaded Windows Forms application, for instance—ASP.NET Web Services are a simpler choice because security policy changes are not required.
Conceptually, what is the difference between early-binding and late-binding?
Early binding – Binding at Compile Time
Late Binding – Binding at Run Time
Early binding implies that the class of the called object is known at compile-time; late-binding implies that the class is not known until run-time, such as a call through an interface or via Reflection.
Early binding is the preferred method. It is the best performer because your application binds directly to the address of the function being called and there is no extra overhead in doing a run-time lookup. In terms of overall execution speed, it is at least twice as fast as late binding.
Early binding also provides type safety. When you have a reference set to the component's type library, Visual Basic provides IntelliSense support to help you code each function correctly. Visual Basic also warns you if the data type of a parameter or return value is incorrect, saving a lot of time when writing and debugging code.
Late binding is still useful in situations where the exact interface of an object is not known at design-time. If your application seeks to talk with multiple unknown servers or needs to invoke functions by name (using the Visual Basic 6.0 CallByName function for example) then you need to use late binding. Late binding is also useful to work around compatibility problems between multiple versions of a component that has improperly modified or adapted its interface between versions.
What is an Asssembly Qualified Name? Is it a filename? How is it different?
An assembly qualified name isn't the filename of the assembly; it's the internal name of the assembly combined with the assembly version, culture, and public key, thus making it unique.
e.g. (""System.Xml.XmlDocument, System.Xml, Version=1.0.3300.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089"")
How is a strongly-named assembly different from one that isn’t strongly-named?
Strong names are used to enable the stricter naming requirements associated with shared assemblies. These strong names are created by a .NET utility – sn.exe
Strong names have three goals:
• Name uniqueness. Shared assemblies must have names that are globally unique.
• Prevent name spoofing. Developers don't want someone else releasing a subsequent version of one of your assemblies and falsely claim it came from you, either by accident or intentionally.
• Provide identity on reference. When resolving a reference to an assembly, strong names are used to guarantee the assembly that is loaded came from the expected publisher.
Strong names are implemented using standard public key cryptography. In general, the process works as follows: The author of an assembly generates a key pair (or uses an existing one), signs the file containing the manifest with the private key, and makes the public key available to callers. When references are made to the assembly, the caller records the public key corresponding to the private key used to generate the strong name.
Weak named assemblies are not suitable to be added in GAC and shared. It is essential for an assembly to be strong named.
Strong naming prevents tampering and enables assemblies to be placed in the GAC alongside other assemblies of the same name.
How does the generational garbage collector in the .NET CLR manage object lifetime? What is non-deterministic finalization?
The hugely simplistic version is that every time it garbage-collects, it starts by assuming everything to be garbage, then goes through and builds a list of everything reachable. Those become not-garbage, everything else doesn't, and gets thrown away. What makes it generational is that every time an object goes through this process and survives, it is noted as being a member of an older generation (up to 2, right now). When the garbage-collector is trying to free memory, it starts with the lowest generation (0) and only works up to higher ones if it can't free up enough space, on the grounds that shorter-lived objects are more likely to have been freed than longer-lived ones.
Non-deterministic finalization implies that the destructor (if any) of an object will not necessarily be run (nor its memory cleaned up, but that's a relatively minor issue) immediately upon its going out of scope. Instead, it will wait until first the garbage collector gets around to finding it, and then the finalisation queue empties down to it; and if the process ends before this happens, it may not be finalised at all. (Although the operating system will usually clean up any process-external resources left open - note the usually there, especially as the exceptions tend to hurt a lot.)
What is the difference between Finalize() and Dispose()?
Dispose() is called by the user of an object to indicate that he is finished with it, enabling that object to release any unmanaged resources it holds. Finalize() is called by the run-time to allow an object which has not had Dispose() called on it to do the same. However, Dispose() operates determinalistically, whereas there is no guarantee that Finalize() will be called immediately when an object goes out of scope - or indeed at all, if the program ends before that object is GCed - and as such Dispose() is generally preferred.
How is the using() pattern useful? What is IDisposable? How does it support deterministic finalization?
The using() pattern is useful because it ensures that Dispose() will always be called when a disposable object (defined as one that implements IDisposable, and thus the Dispose() method) goes out of scope, even if it does so by an exception being thrown, and thus that resources are always released.
What does this useful command line do? tasklist /m "mscor*"
Lists all the applications and associated tasks/process currently running on the system with a module whose name begins "mscor" loaded into them; which in nearly all cases means "all the .NET processes".
What’s wrong with a line like this? DateTime.Parse(myString);
Therez nothing wrong with this declaration.Converts the specified string representation of a date and time to its DateTime equivalent.But If the string is not a valid DateTime,It throws an exception.
What are PDBs? Where must they be located for debugging to work?
A program database (PDB) files holds debugging and project state information that allows incremental linking of debug configuration of your program.There are several different types of symbolic debugging information. The default type for Microsoft compiler is the so-called PDB file. The compiler setting for creating this file is /Zi, or /ZI for C/C++(which creates a PDB file with additional information that enables a feature called ""Edit and Continue"") or a Visual Basic/C#/JScript .NET program with /debug.
A PDB file is a separate file, placed by default in the Debug project subdirectory, that has the same name as the executable file with the extension .pdb. Note that the Visual C++ compiler by default creates an additional PDB file called VC60.pdb for VisulaC++6.0 and VC70.PDB file for VisulaC++7.0. The compiler creates this file during compilation of the source code, when the compiler isn't aware of the final name of the executable. The linker can merge this temporary PDB file into the main one if you tell it to, but it won't do it by default. The PDB file can be useful to display the detailed stack trace with source files and line numbers.
What is FullTrust? Do GAC’ed assemblies have FullTrust?
Before the .NET Framework existed, Windows had two levels of trust for downloaded code. This old model was a binary trust model. You only had two choices: Full Trust, and No Trust. The code could either do anything you could do, or it wouldn't run at all.

The permission sets in .NET include FullTrust, SkipVerification, Execution, Nothing, LocalIntranet, Internet and Everything. Full Trust Grants unrestricted permissions to system resources. Fully trusted code run by a normal, nonprivileged user cannot do administrative tasks, but can access any resources the user can access, and do anything the user can do. From a security standpoint, you can think of fully trusted code as being similar to native, unmanaged code, like a traditional ActiveX control.
GAC assemblies are granted FullTrust. In v1.0 and 1.1, the fact that assemblies in the GAC seem to always get a FullTrust grant is actually a side effect of the fact that the GAC lives on the local machine. If anyone were to lock down the security policy by changing the grant set of the local machine to something less than FullTrust, and if your assembly did not get extra permission from some other code group, it would no longer have FullTrust even though it lives in the GAC.
What does this do? gacutil /l | find /i "Corillian"
The Global Assembly Cache tool allows you to view and manipulate the contents of the global assembly cache and download cache.The tool comes with various optional params to do that.
""/l"" option Lists the contents of the global assembly cache. If you specify the assemblyName parameter(/l [assemblyName]), the tool lists only the assemblies matching that name.
What does this do .. sn -t foo.dll ?
Sn -t option displays the token for the public key stored in infile. The contents of infile must be previously generated using -p.
Sn.exe computes the token using a hash function from the public key. To save space, the common language runtime stores public key tokens in the manifest as part of a reference to another assembly when it records a dependency to an assembly that has a strong name. The -tp option displays the public key in addition to the token.
How do you generate a strong name?
.NET provides an utility called strong name tool. You can run this toolfrom the VS.NET command prompt to generate a strong name with an option "-k" and providing the strong key file name. i.e. sn- -k <>
What is the difference between a Debug and Release build? Is there a significant speed difference? Why or why not?
The Debug build is the program compiled with full symbolic debug information and no optimization. The Release build is the program compiled employing optimization and contains no symbolic debug information. These settings can be changed as per need from Project Configuration properties. The release runs faster since it does not have any debug symbols and is optimized.
Explain the use of virtual, sealed, override, and abstract.
Abstract: The keyword can be applied for a class or method.
1. Class: If we use abstract keyword for a class it makes the
class an abstract class, which means it cant be instantiated. Though
it is not nessacary to make all the method within the abstract class to be virtual. ie, Abstract class can have concrete methods
2. Method: If we make a method as abstract, we dont need to provide implementation
of the method in the class but the derived class need to implement/override this method.

Sealed: It can be applied on a class and methods. It stops the type from further derivation i.e no one can derive class
from a sealed class,ie A sealed class cannot be inherited.A sealed class cannot be a abstract class.A compile time error is thrown if you try to specify sealed class as a base class.
When an instance method declaration includes a sealed modifier, that method is said to be a sealed method. If an instance method declaration includes the sealed modifier, it must also include the override modifier. Use of the sealed modifier prevents a derived class from further overriding the method For Egs: sealed override public void Sample() { Console.WriteLine("Sealed Method"); }

Virtual & Override: Virtual & Override keywords provides runtime polymorphism. A base class can make some of its methods
as virtual which allows the derived class a chance to override the base class implementation by using override keyword.

For e.g. class Shape
{
int a
public virtual void Display()
{
Console.WriteLine("Shape");
}
}

class Rectangle:Shape
{
public override void Display()
{
Console.WriteLine("Derived");
}
}

Explain the importance and use of each, Version, Culture and PublicKeyToken for an assembly.
This three alongwith name of the assembly provide a strong name or fully qualified name to the assembly. When a assebly is referenced with all three.
PublicKeyToken: Each assembly can have a public key embedded in its manifest that identifies the developer. This ensures that once the assembly ships, no one can modify the code or other resources contained in the assembly.

Culture: Specifies which culture the assembly supports

Version: The version number of the assembly.It is of the following form major.minor.build.revision.
Explain the differences between public, protected, private and internal.
These all are access modifier and they governs the access level. They can be applied to class, methods, fields.

Public: Allows class, methods, fields to be accessible from anywhere i.e. within and outside an assembly.
Private: When applied to field and method allows to be accessible within a class.
Protected: Similar to private but can be accessed by members of derived class also.
Internal: They are public within the assembly i.e. they can be accessed by anyone within an assembly but outside assembly they are not visible.
What is the difference between typeof(foo) and myFoo.GetType()?
Typeof is operator which applied to a object returns System.Type object. Typeof cannot be overloaded white GetType has lot of overloads.GetType is a method which also returns System.Type of an object. GetType is used to get the runtime type of the object.
Example from MSDN showing Gettype used to retrive type at untime:-
public class MyBaseClass: Object {
}
public class MyDerivedClass: MyBaseClass {
}
public class Test {
public static void Main() {
MyBaseClass myBase = new MyBaseClass();
MyDerivedClass myDerived = new MyDerivedClass();
object o = myDerived;
MyBaseClass b = myDerived;
Console.WriteLine("mybase: Type is {0}", myBase.GetType());
Console.WriteLine("myDerived: Type is {0}", myDerived.GetType());
Console.WriteLine("object o = myDerived: Type is {0}", o.GetType());
Console.WriteLine("MyBaseClass b = myDerived: Type is {0}", b.GetType());
}
}

/*
This code produces the following output.
mybase: Type is MyBaseClass
myDerived: Type is MyDerivedClass
object o = myDerived: Type is MyDerivedClass
MyBaseClass b = myDerived: Type is MyDerivedClass
*/
Can "this" be used within a static method?
No 'This' cannot be used in a static method. As only static variables/methods can be used in a static method.
What is the purpose of XML Namespaces?
An XML Namespace is a collection of element types and attribute names. It consists of 2 parts
1) The first part is the URI used to identify the namespace
2) The second part is the element type or attribute name itself.
Together they form a unique name. The various purpose of XML Namespace are
1. Combine fragments from different documents without any naming conflicts. (See example below.)
2. Write reusable code modules that can be invoked for specific elements and attributes. Universally unique names guarantee that
such modules are invoked only for the correct elements and attributes.
3. Define elements and attributes that can be reused in other schemas or instance documents without fear of name collisions. For
example, you might use XHTML elements in a parts catalog to provide part descriptions. Or you might use the nil attribute
defined in XML Schemas to indicate a missing value.
<>
<>DVS1< /Name >
< addr="http://www.tu-darmstadt.de/ito/addresses">
<>Wilhelminenstr. 7< /addr:Street >
<>Darmstadt< /addr:City >
<>Hessen< /addr:State >
<>Germany< /addr:Country >
<>D-64285< /addr:PostalCode >
< /addr:Address >
< serv="http://www.tu-darmstadt.de/ito/servers">
<>OurWebServer< /serv:Name >
<>123.45.67.8< /serv:Address >
< /serv:Server >
< /Department >
What is difference between MetaData and Manifest ?
Metadata and Manifest forms an integral part of an assembly( dll / exe ) in .net framework .
Out of which Metadata is a mandatory component , which as the name suggests gives the details about various components of IL code viz : Methods , properties , fields , class etc.
Essentially Metadata maintains details in form of tables like Methods Metadata tables , Properties Metadata tables , which maintains the list of given type and other details like access specifier , return type etc.
Now Manifest is a part of metadata only , fully called as “manifest metadata tables” , it contains the details of the references needed by the assembly of any other external assembly / type , it could be a custom assembly or standard System namespace .
Now for an assembly that can independently exists and used in the .Net world both the things ( Metadata with Manifest ) are mandatory , so that it can be fully described assembly and can be ported anywhere without any system dependency . Essentially .Net framework can read all assembly related information from assembly itself at runtime .
But for .Net modules , that can’t be used independently , until they are being packaged as a part of an assembly , they don’t contain Manifest but their complete structure is defined by their respective metadata .
Ultimately . .Net modules use Manifest Metadata tables of parent assembly which contain them .

What is the use of Internal keyword?
Internal keyword is one of the access specifier available in .Net framework , that makes a type visible in a given assembly , for e.g : a single dll can contain multiple modules , essentially a multi file assembly , but it forms a single binary component , so any type with internal keyword will be visible throughout the assembly and can be used in any of the modules .

What actually happes when you add a something to arraylistcollection ?
Following things will happen :
Arraylist is a dynamic array class in c# in System.Collections namespace derived from interfaces – ICollection , IList , ICloneable , IConvertible . It terms of in memory structure following is the implementation .
a. Check up the total space if there’s any free space on the declared list .
b. If yes add the new item and increase count by 1 .
c. If No Copy the whole thing to a temporary Array of Last Max. Size .
d. Create new Array with size ( Last Array Size + Increase Value )
e. Copy back values from temp and reference this new array as original array .
f. Must doing Method updates too , need to check it up .
What is Boxing and unboxing? Does it occure automaatically or u need to write code to box and unbox?
Boxing – Process of converting a System.ValueType to Reference Type , Mostly base class System.Object type and allocating it memory on Heap .Reverse is unboxing , but can only be done with prior boxed variables.
Boxing is always implicit but Unboxing needs to be explicitly done via casting , thus ensuring the value type contained inside .
How Boxing and unboxing occures in memory?
Boxing converts value type to reference type , thus allocating memory on Heap . Unboxing converts already boxed reference types to value types through explicit casting , thus allocating memory on stack .

Why only boxed types can be unboxed?
Unboxing is the process of converting a Reference type variable to Value type and thus allocating memory on the stack . It happens only to those Reference type variables that have been earlier created by Boxing of a Value Type , therefore internally they contain a value type , which can be obtained through explicit casting . For any other Reference type , they don’t internally contain a Value type to Unboxed via explicit casting . This is why only boxed types can be unboxed .
Com +

What are different transaction options available for services components ?
There are 5 transactions types that can be used with COM+. Whenever an object is registered with COM+ it has to abide either to these 5 transaction types.
Disabled: - There is no transaction. COM+ does not provide transaction support for this component.
Not Supported: - Component does not support transactions. Hence even if the calling component in the hierarchy is transaction enabled this component will not participate in the transaction.
Supported: - Components with transaction type supported will be a part of the transaction if the calling component has an active transaction.
If the calling component is not transaction enabled this component will not start a new transaction.
Required: - Components with this attribute require a transaction i.e. either the calling should have a transaction in place else this component will start a new transaction.
Required New: - Components enabled with this transaction type always require a new transaction. Components with required new transaction type instantiate a new transaction for themselves every time.

Can we use com Components in .net?.How ?.can we use .net components in vb?.Explain how ?
COM components have different internal architecture from .NET components hence they are not innately compatible. However .NET framework supports invocation of unmanaged code from managed code (and vice-versa) through COM/.NET interoperability. .NET application communicates with a COM component through a managed wrapper of the component called Runtime Callable Wrapper (RCW); it acts as managed proxy to the unmanaged COM component. When a method call is made to COM object, it goes onto RCW and not the object itself. RCW manages the lifetime management of the COM component. Implementation Steps -
Create Runtime Callable Wrapper out of COM component. Reference the metadata assembly Dll in the project and use its methods & properties RCW can be created using Type Library Importer utility or through VS.NET. Using VS.NET, add reference through COM tab to select the desired DLL. VS.NET automatically generates metadata assembly putting the classes provided by that component into a namespace with the same name as COM dll (XYZRCW.dll)
.NET components can be invoked by unmanaged code through COM Callable Wrapper (CCW) in COM/.NET interop. The unmanaged code will talk to this proxy, which translates call to managed environment. We can use COM components in .NET through COM/.NET interoperability. When managed code calls an unmanaged component, behind the scene, .NET creates proxy called COM Callable wrapper (CCW), which accepts commands from a COM client, and forwards it to .NET component. There are two prerequisites to creating .NET component, to be used in unmanaged code:
1. .NET class should be implement its functionality through interface. First define interface in code, then have the class to imlpement it. This way, it prevents breaking of COM client, if/when .NET component changes.
2.Secondly, .NET class, which is to be visible to COM clients must be declared public. The tools that create the CCW only define types based
on public classes. The same rule applies to methods, properties, and events that will be used by COM clients.
Implementation Steps -
1. Generate type library of .NET component, using TLBExporter utility. A type library is the COM equivalent of the metadata contained within
a .NET assembly. Type libraries are generally contained in files with the extension .tlb. A type library contains the necessary information to allow a COM client to determine which classes are located in a particular server, as well as the methods, properties, and events supported by those classes.
2. Secondly, use Assembly Registration tool (regasm) to create the type library and register it.
3. Lastly install .NET assembly in GAC, so it is available as shared assembly.
What is Runtime Callable wrapper?.when it will created?.
The common language runtime exposes COM objects through a proxy called the runtime callable wrapper (RCW). Although the RCW appears to be an ordinary object to .NET clients, its primary function is to marshal calls between a .NET client and a COM object. This wrapper turns the COM interfaces exposed by the COM component into .NET-compatible interfaces. For oleautomation (attribute indicates that an interface is compatible with Automation) interfaces, the RCW can be generated automatically from a type library. For non-oleautomation interfaces, it may be necessary to develop a custom RCW which manually maps the types exposed by the COM interface to .NET-compatible types.
What is Com Callable wrapper?when it will created?
.NET components are accessed from COM via a COM Callable Wrapper (CCW). This is similar to a RCW, but works in the opposite direction. Again, if the wrapper cannot be automatically generated by the .NET development tools, or if the automatic behaviour is not desirable, a custom CCW can be developed. Also, for COM to 'see' the .NET component, the .NET component must be registered in the registry.CCWs also manage the object identity and object lifetime of the managed objects they wrap.
What is a primary interop ?
A primary interop assembly is a collection of types that are deployed, versioned, and configured as a single unit. However, unlike other managed assemblies, an interop assembly contains type definitions (not implementation) of types that have already been defined in COM. These type definitions allow managed applications to bind to the COM types at compile time and provide information to the common language runtime
about how the types should be marshaled at run time.
What are tlbimp and tlbexp tools used for ?
The Type Library Exporter generates a type library that describes the types defined in a common language runtime assembly.
The Type Library Importer converts the type definitions found within a COM type library into equivalent definitions in a common language runtime assembly. The output of Tlbimp.exe is a binary file (an assembly) that contains runtime metadata for the types defined within the original type library.
What benefit do you get from using a Primary Interop Assembly (PIA)?
PIAs are important because they provide unique type identity. The PIA distinguishes the official type definitions from counterfeit definitions provided by other interop assemblies. Having a single type identity ensures type compatibility between applications that share the types defined in the PIA. Because the PIA is signed by its publisher and labeled with the PrimaryInteropAssembly attribute, it can be differentiated from other interop assemblies that define the same types.

ADO.NET

Explain what a diffgram is and its usage ?
A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current and original versions of data elements. The DataSet uses the DiffGram format to load and persist its contents, and to serialize its contents for transport across a network connection. When a DataSet is written as a DiffGram, it populates the DiffGram with all the necessary information to accurately recreate the contents, though not the schema, of the DataSet, including column values from both the Original and Current row versions, row error information, and row order.
When sending and retrieving a DataSet from an XML Web service, the DiffGram format is implicitly used. Additionally, when loading the contents of a DataSet from XML using the ReadXml method, or when writing the contents of a DataSet in XML using the WriteXml method, you can select that the contents be read or written as a DiffGram.
The DiffGram format is divided into three sections: the current data, the original (or "before") data, and an errors section, as shown in the following example.

xmlns:msdata="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:xml-msdata"
xmlns:diffgr="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:xml-diffgram-v1"
xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">







The DiffGram format consists of the following blocks of data:

The name of this element, DataInstance, is used for explanation purposes in this documentation. A DataInstance element represents a DataSet or a row of a DataTable. Instead of DataInstance, the element would contain the name of the DataSet or DataTable. This block of the DiffGram format contains the current data, whether it has been modified or not. An element, or row, that has been modified is identified with the diffgr:hasChanges annotation.

This block of the DiffGram format contains the original version of a row. Elements in this block are matched to elements in the DataInstance block using the diffgr:id annotation.

This block of the DiffGram format contains error information for a particular row in the DataInstance block. Elements in this block are matched to elements in the DataInstance block using the diffgr:id annotation.
Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
You have to use the Fill method of the DataAdapter control and pass the dataset object as an argument to load the generated data.
Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
NO.
Which are the different IsolationLevels ?
Following are the various IsolationLevels:
• Serialized Data read by a current transaction cannot be changed by another transaction until the current transaction finishes. No new data can be inserted that would affect the current transaction. This is the safest isolation level and is the default.
• Repeatable Read Data read by a current transaction cannot be changed by another transaction until the current transaction finishes. Any type of new data can be inserted during a transaction.
• Read Committed A transaction cannot read data that is being modified by another transaction that has not committed. This is the default isolation level in Microsoft® SQL Server.
• Read Uncommitted A transaction can read any data, even if it is being modified by another transaction. This is the least safe isolation level but allows the highest concurrency.
• Any Any isolation level is supported. This setting is most commonly used by downstream components to avoid conflicts. This setting is useful because any downstream component must be configured with an isolation level that is equal to or less than the isolation level of its immediate upstream component. Therefore, a downstream component that has its isolation level configured as Any always uses the same isolation level that its immediate upstream component uses. If the root object in a transaction has its isolation level configured to Any, its isolation level becomes Serialized.
How xml files and be read and write using dataset?.
DataSet exposes method like ReadXml and WriteXml to read and write xml
What are the different rowversions available?
There are four types of Rowversions.
Current:
The current values for the row. This row version does not exist for rows with a RowState of Deleted.
Default :
The row the default version for the current DataRowState. For a DataRowState value of Added, Modified or Current, the default version is Current. For a DataRowState of Deleted, the version is Original. For a DataRowState value of Detached, the version is Proposed.
Original:
The row contains its original values.
Proposed:
The proposed values for the row. This row version exists during an edit operation on a row, or for a row that is not part of a DataRowCollection
Explain acid properties?.
The term ACID conveys the role transactions play in mission-critical applications. Coined by transaction processing pioneers, ACID stands for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
These properties ensure predictable behavior, reinforcing the role of transactions as all-or-none propositions designed to reduce the management load when there are many variables.
Atomicity
A transaction is a unit of work in which a series of operations occur between the BEGIN TRANSACTION and END TRANSACTION statements of an application. A transaction executes exactly once and is atomic — all the work is done or none of it is.
Operations associated with a transaction usually share a common intent and are interdependent. By performing only a subset of these operations, the system could compromise the overall intent of the transaction. Atomicity eliminates the chance of processing a subset of operations.
Consistency
A transaction is a unit of integrity because it preserves the consistency of data, transforming one consistent state of data into another consistent state of data.
Consistency requires that data bound by a transaction be semantically preserved. Some of the responsibility for maintaining consistency falls to the application developer who must make sure that all known integrity constraints are enforced by the application. For example, in developing an application that transfers money, you should avoid arbitrarily moving decimal points during the transfer.
Isolation
A transaction is a unit of isolation — allowing concurrent transactions to behave as though each were the only transaction running in the system.
Isolation requires that each transaction appear to be the only transaction manipulating the data store, even though other transactions may be running at the same time. A transaction should never see the intermediate stages of another transaction.
Transactions attain the highest level of isolation when they are serializable. At this level, the results obtained from a set of concurrent transactions are identical to the results obtained by running each transaction serially. Because a high degree of isolation can limit the number of concurrent transactions, some applications reduce the isolation level in exchange for better throughput.
Durability
A transaction is also a unit of recovery. If a transaction succeeds, the system guarantees that its updates will persist, even if the computer crashes immediately after the commit. Specialized logging allows the system's restart procedure to complete unfinished operations, making the transaction durable.

Whate are different types of Commands available with DataAdapter ?
The SqlDataAdapter has SelectCommand, InsertCommand, DeleteCommand and UpdateCommand
What is a Dataset?
Datasets are the result of bringing together ADO and XML. A dataset contains one or more data of tabular XML, known as DataTables, these data can be treated separately, or can have relationships defined between them. Indeed these relationships give you ADO data SHAPING without needing to master the SHAPE language, which many people are not comfortable with.
The dataset is a disconnected in-memory cache database. The dataset object model looks like this:
Dataset
DataTableCollection
DataTable
DataView
DataRowCollection
DataRow
DataColumnCollection
DataColumn
ChildRelations
ParentRelations
Constraints
PrimaryKey
DataRelationCollection
Let’s take a look at each of these:
DataTableCollection: As we say that a DataSet is an in-memory database. So it has this collection, which holds data from multiple tables in a single DataSet object.
DataTable: In the DataTableCollection, we have DataTable objects, which represents the individual tables of the dataset.
DataView: The way we have views in database, same way we can have DataViews. We can use these DataViews to do Sort, filter data.
DataRowCollection: Similar to DataTableCollection, to represent each row in each Table we have DataRowCollection.
DataRow: To represent each and every row of the DataRowCollection, we have DataRows.
DataColumnCollection: Similar to DataTableCollection, to represent each column in each Table we have DataColumnCollection.
DataColumn: To represent each and every Column of the DataColumnCollection, we have DataColumn.
PrimaryKey: Dataset defines Primary key for the table and the primary key validation will take place without going to the database.
Constraints: We can define various constraints on the Tables, and can use Dataset.Tables(0).enforceConstraints. This will execute all the constraints, whenever we enter data in DataTable.
DataRelationCollection: as we know that we can have more than 1 table in the dataset, we can also define relationship between these tables using this collection and maintain a parent-child relationship.
Explain the ADO . Net Architecture ( .Net Data Provider)
ADO.Net is the data access model for .Net –based applications. It can be used to access relational database systems such as SQL SERVER 2000, Oracle, and many other data sources for which there is an OLD DB or ODBC provider. To a certain extent, ADO.NET represents the latest evolution of ADO technology. However, ADO.NET introduces some major changes and innovations that are aimed at the loosely coupled and inherently disconnected – nature of web applications.
A .Net Framework data provider is used to connecting to a database, executing commands, and retrieving results. Those results are either processed directly, or placed in an ADO.NET DataSet in order to be exposed to the user in an ad-hoc manner, combined with data from multiple sources, or remoted between tiers. The .NET Framework data provider is designed to be lightweight, creating a minimal layer between the data source and your code, increasing performance without sacrificing functionality.
Following are the 4 core objects of .Net Framework Data provider:
• Connection: Establishes a connection to a specific data source
• Command: Executes a command against a data source. Exposes Parameters and can execute within the scope of a Transaction from a Connection.
• DataReader: Reads a forward-only, read-only stream of data from a data source.
• DataAdapter: Populates a DataSet and resolves updates with the data source.
The .NET Framework includes the .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server (for Microsoft SQL Server version 7.0 or later), the .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB, and the .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC.
The .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server: The .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server uses its own protocol to communicate with SQL Server. It is lightweight and performs well because it is optimized to access a SQL Server directly without adding an OLE DB or Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) layer. The following illustration contrasts the .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server with the .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB. The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB communicates to an OLE DB data source through both the OLE DB Service component, which provides connection pooling and transaction services, and the OLE DB Provider for the data source
The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB: The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB uses native OLE DB through COM interoperability to enable data access. The .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB supports both local and distributed transactions. For distributed transactions, the .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB, by default, automatically enlists in a transaction and obtains transaction details from Windows 2000 Component Services.
The .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC: The .NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC uses native ODBC Driver Manager (DM) through COM interoperability to enable data access. The ODBC data provider supports both local and distributed transactions. For distributed transactions, the ODBC data provider, by default, automatically enlists in a transaction and obtains transaction details from Windows 2000 Component Services.
The .NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle: The .NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle enables data access to Oracle data sources through Oracle client connectivity software. The data provider supports Oracle client software version 8.1.7 and later. The data provider supports both local and distributed transactions (the data provider automatically enlists in existing distributed transactions, but does not currently support the EnlistDistributedTransaction method).
The .NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle requires that Oracle client software (version 8.1.7 or later) be installed on the system before you can use it to connect to an Oracle data source.
.NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle classes are located in the System.Data.OracleClient namespace and are contained in the System.Data.OracleClient.dll assembly. You will need to reference both the System.Data.dll and the System.Data.OracleClient.dll when compiling an application that uses the data provider.
Choosing a .NET Framework Data Provider
.NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server: Recommended for middle-tier applications using Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 or later. Recommended for single-tier applications using Microsoft Data Engine (MSDE) or Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 or later.
Recommended over use of the OLE DB Provider for SQL Server (SQLOLEDB) with the .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB. For Microsoft SQL Server version 6.5 and earlier, you must use the OLE DB Provider for SQL Server with the .NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB.
.NET Framework Data Provider for OLE DB: Recommended for middle-tier applications using Microsoft SQL Server 6.5 or earlier, or any OLE DB provider. For Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 or later, the .NET Framework Data Provider for SQL Server is recommended. Recommended for single-tier applications using Microsoft Access databases. Use of a Microsoft Access database for a middle-tier application is not recommended.
.NET Framework Data Provider for ODBC: Recommended for middle-tier applications using ODBC data sources. Recommended for single-tier applications using ODBC data sources.
.NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle: Recommended for middle-tier applications using Oracle data sources. Recommended for single-tier applications using Oracle data sources. Supports Oracle client software version 8.1.7 and later. The .NET Framework Data Provider for Oracle classes are located in the System.Data.OracleClient namespace and are contained in the System.Data.OracleClient.dll assembly. You need to reference both the System.Data.dll and the System.Data.OracleClient.dll when compiling an application that uses the data provider.
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset?
Let’s take a look at the differences between ADO Recordset and ADO.Net DataSet:
1. Table Collection: ADO Recordset provides the ability to navigate through a single table of information. That table would have been formed with a join of multiple tables and returning columns from multiple tables. ADO.NET DataSet is capable of holding instances of multiple tables. It has got a Table Collection, which holds multiple tables in it. If the tables are having a relation, then it can be manipulated on a Parent-Child relationship. It has the ability to support multiple tables with keys, constraints and interconnected relationships. With this ability the DataSet can be considered as a small, in-memory relational database cache.
2. Navigation: Navigation in ADO Recordset is based on the cursor mode. Even though it is specified to be a client-side Recordset, still the navigation pointer will move from one location to another on cursor model only. ADO.NET DataSet is an entirely offline, in-memory, and cache of data. All of its data is available all the time. At any time, we can retrieve any row or column, constraints or relation simply by accessing it either ordinarily or by retrieving it from a name-based collection.
3. Connectivity Model: The ADO Recordset was originally designed without the ability to operate in a disconnected environment. ADO.NET DataSet is specifically designed to be a disconnected in-memory database. ADO.NET DataSet follows a pure disconnected connectivity model and this gives it much more scalability and versatility in the amount of things it can do and how easily it can do that.
4. Marshalling and Serialization: In COM, through Marshalling, we can pass data from 1 COM component to another component at any time. Marshalling involves copying and processing data so that a complex type can appear to the receiving component the same as it appeared to the sending component. Marshalling is an expensive operation. ADO.NET Dataset and DataTable components support Remoting in the form of XML serialization. Rather than doing expensive Marshalling, it uses XML and sent data across boundaries.
5. Firewalls and DCOM and Remoting: Those who have worked with DCOM know that how difficult it is to marshal a DCOM component across a router. People generally came up with workarounds to solve this issue. ADO.NET DataSet uses Remoting, through which a DataSet / DataTable component can be serialized into XML, sent across the wire to a new AppDomain, and then Desterilized back to a fully functional DataSet. As the DataSet is completely disconnected, and it has no dependency, we lose absolutely nothing by serializing and transferring it through Remoting.

How do you handle data concurrency in .NET ?
One of the key features of the ADO.NET DataSet is that it can be a self-contained and disconnected data store. It can contain the schema and data from several rowsets in DataTable objects as well as information about how to relate the DataTable objects-all in memory. The DataSet neither knows nor cares where the data came from, nor does it need a link to an underlying data source. Because it is data source agnostic you can pass the DataSet around networks or even serialize it to XML and pass it across the Internet without losing any of its features. However, in a disconnected model, concurrency obviously becomes a much bigger problem than it is in a connected model.
In this column, I'll explore how ADO.NET is equipped to detect and handle concurrency violations. I'll begin by discussing scenarios in which concurrency violations can occur using the ADO.NET disconnected model. Then I will walk through an ASP.NET application that handles concurrency violations by giving the user the choice to overwrite the changes or to refresh the out-of-sync data and begin editing again. Because part of managing an optimistic concurrency model can involve keeping a timestamp (rowversion) or another type of flag that indicates when a row was last updated, I will show how to implement this type of flag and how to maintain its value after each database update.

Is Your Glass Half Full?
There are three common techniques for managing what happens when users try to modify the same data at the same time: pessimistic, optimistic, and last-in wins. They each handle concurrency issues differently.
The pessimistic approach says: "Nobody can cause a concurrency violation with my data if I do not let them get at the data while I have it." This tactic prevents concurrency in the first place but it limits scalability because it prevents all concurrent access. Pessimistic concurrency generally locks a row from the time it is retrieved until the time updates are flushed to the database. Since this requires a connection to remain open during the entire process, pessimistic concurrency cannot successfully be implemented in a disconnected model like the ADO.NET DataSet, which opens a connection only long enough to populate the DataSet then releases and closes, so a database lock cannot be held.
Another technique for dealing with concurrency is the last-in wins approach. This model is pretty straightforward and easy to implement-whatever data modification was made last is what gets written to the database. To implement this technique you only need to put the primary key fields of the row in the UPDATE statement's WHERE clause. No matter what is changed, the UPDATE statement will overwrite the changes with its own changes since all it is looking for is the row that matches the primary key values. Unlike the pessimistic model, the last-in wins approach allows users to read the data while it is being edited on screen. However, problems can occur when users try to modify the same data at the same time because users can overwrite each other's changes without being notified of the collision. The last-in wins approach does not detect or notify the user of violations because it does not care. However the optimistic technique does detect violations. Contd....
In optimistic concurrency models, a row is only locked during the update to the database. Therefore the data can be retrieved and updated by other users at any time other than during the actual row update operation. Optimistic concurrency allows the data to be read simultaneously by multiple users and blocks other users less often than its pessimistic counterpart, making it a good choice for ADO.NET. In optimistic models, it is important to implement some type of concurrency violation detection that will catch any additional attempt to modify records that have already been modified but not committed. You can write your code to handle the violation by always rejecting and canceling the change request or by overwriting the request based on some business rules. Another way to handle the concurrency violation is to let the user decide what to do. The sample application that is shown in Figure 1 illustrates some of the options that can be presented to the user in the event of a concurrency violation.
Where Did My Changes Go?
When users are likely to overwrite each other's changes, control mechanisms should be put in place. Otherwise, changes could be lost. If the technique you're using is the last-in wins approach, then these types of overwrites are entirely possible.For example, imagine Julie wants to edit an employee's last name to correct the spelling. She navigates to a screen which loads the employee's information into a DataSet and has it presented to her in a Web page. Meanwhile, Scott is notified that the same employee's phone extension has changed. While Julie is correcting the employee's last name, Scott begins to correct his extension. Julie saves her changes first and then Scott saves his.Assuming that the application uses the last-in wins approach and updates the row using a SQL WHERE clause containing only the primary key's value, and assuming a change to one column requires the entire row to be updated, neither Julie nor Scott may immediatelyrealize the concurrency issue that just occurred. In this particular situation, Julie's changes were overwritten by Scott's changes because he saved last, and the last name reverted to the misspelled version.
So as you can see, even though the users changed different fields, their changes collided and caused Julie's changes to be lost. Without some sort of concurrency detection and handling, these types of overwrites can occur and even go unnoticed.When you run the sample application included in this column's download, you should open two separate instances of Microsoft® Internet Explorer. When I generated the conflict, I opened two instances to simulate two users with two separate sessions so that a concurrency violation would occur in the sample application. When you do this, be careful not to use Ctrl+N because if you open one instance and then use the Ctrl+N technique to open another instance, both windows will share the same session.
Detecting Violations
The concurrency violation reported to the user in Figure 1 demonstrates what can happen when multiple users edit the same data at the same time. In Figure 1, the user attempted to modify the first name to "Joe" but since someone else had already modified the last name to "Fuller III," a concurrency violation was detected and reported. ADO.NET detects a concurrency violation when a DataSet containing changed values is passed to a SqlDataAdapter's Update method and no rows are actually modified. Simply using the primary key (in this case the EmployeeID) in the UPDATE statement's WHERE clause will not cause a violation to be detected because it still updates the row (in fact, this technique has the same outcome as the last-in wins technique). Instead, more conditions must be specified in the WHERE clause in order for ADO.NET to detect the violation.
The key here is to make the WHERE clause explicit enough so that it not only checks the primary key but that it also checks for another appropriate condition. One way to accomplish this is to pass in all modifiable fields to the WHERE clause in addition to the primary key. For example, the application shown in Figure 1 could have its UPDATE statement look like the stored procedure that's shown in Figure 2.
Notice that in the code in Figure 2 nullable columns are also checked to see if the value passed in is NULL. This technique is not only messy but it can be difficult to maintain by hand and it requires you to test for a significant number of WHERE conditions just to update a row. This yields the desired result of only updating rows where none of the values have changed since the last time the user got the data, but there are other techniques that do not require such a huge WHERE clause.
Another way to make sure that the row is only updated if it has not been modified by another user since you got the data is to add a timestamp column to the table. The SQL Server(tm) TIMESTAMP datatype automatically updates itself with a new value every time a value in its row is modified. This makes it a very simple and convenient tool to help detect concurrency violations.
A third technique is to use a DATETIME column in which to track changes to its row. In my sample application I added a column called LastUpdateDateTime to the Employees table.
ALTER TABLE Employees ADD LastUpdateDateTime DATETIME
There I update the value of the LastUpdateDateTime field automatically in the UPDATE stored procedure using the built-in SQL Server GETDATE function.
The binary TIMESTAMP column is simple to create and use since it automatically regenerates its value each time its row is modified, but since the DATETIME column technique is easier to display on screen and demonstrate when the change was made, I chose it for my sample application. Both of these are solid choices, but I prefer the TIMESTAMP technique since it does not involve any additional code to update its value.
Retrieving Row Flags
One of the keys to implementing concurrency controls is to update the timestamp or datetime field's value back into the DataSet. If the same user wants to make more modifications, this updated value is reflected in the DataSet so it can be used again. There are a few different ways to do this. The fastest is using output parameters within the stored procedure. (This should only return if @@ROWCOUNT equals 1.) The next fastest involves selecting the row again after the UPDATE within the stored procedure. The slowest involves selecting the row from another SQL statement or stored procedure from the SqlDataAdapter's RowUpdated event.
I prefer to use the output parameter technique since it is the fastest and incurs the least overhead. Using the RowUpdated event works well, but it requires me to make a second call from the application to the database. The following code snippet adds an output parameter to the SqlCommand object that is used to update the Employee information:
oUpdCmd.Parameters.Add(new SqlParameter("@NewLastUpdateDateTime",
SqlDbType.DateTime, 8, ParameterDirection.Output,
false, 0, 0, "LastUpdateDateTime", DataRowVersion.Current, null));
oUpdCmd.UpdatedRowSource = UpdateRowSource.OutputParameters;
The output parameter has its sourcecolumn and sourceversion arguments set to point the output parameter's return value back to the current value of the LastUpdateDateTime column of the DataSet. This way the updated DATETIME value is retrieved and can be returned to the user's .aspx page. Contd....
Saving Changes
Now that the Employees table has the tracking field (LastUpdateDateTime) and the stored procedure has been created to use both the primary key and the tracking field in the WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement, let's take a look at the role of ADO.NET. In order to trap the event when the user changes the values in the textboxes, I created an event handler for the TextChanged event for each TextBox control:
private void txtLastName_TextChanged(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
{
// Get the employee DataRow (there is only 1 row, otherwise I could
// do a Find)
dsEmployee.EmployeeRow oEmpRow =
(dsEmployee.EmployeeRow)oDsEmployee.Employee.Rows[0];
oEmpRow.LastName = txtLastName.Text;
// Save changes back to Session
Session["oDsEmployee"] = oDsEmployee;
}
This event retrieves the row and sets the appropriate field's value from the TextBox. (Another way of getting the changed values is to grab them when the user clicks the Save button.) Each TextChanged event executes after the Page_Load event fires on a postback, so assuming the user changed the first and last names, when the user clicks the Save button, the events could fire in this order: Page_Load, txtFirstName_TextChanged, txtLastName_TextChanged, and btnSave_Click.
The Page_Load event grabs the row from the DataSet in the Session object; the TextChanged events update the DataRow with the new values; and the btnSave_Click event attempts to save the record to the database. The btnSave_Click event calls the SaveEmployee method (shown in Figure 3) and passes it a bLastInWins value of false since we want to attempt a standard save first. If the SaveEmployee method detects that changes were made to the row (using the HasChanges method on the DataSet, or alternatively using the RowState property on the row), it creates an instance of the Employee class and passes the DataSet to its SaveEmployee method. The Employee class could live in a logical or physical middle tier. (I wanted to make this a separate class so it would be easy to pull the code out and separate it from the presentation logic.)
Notice that I did not use the GetChanges method to pull out only the modified rows and pass them to the Employee object's Save method. I skipped this step here since there is only one row. However, if there were multiple rows in the DataSet's DataTable, it would be better to use the GetChanges method to create a DataSet that contains only the modified rows.
If the save succeeds, the Employee.SaveEmployee method returns a DataSet containing the modified row and its newly updated row version flag (in this case, the LastUpdateDateTime field's value). This DataSet is then merged into the original DataSet so that the LastUpdateDateTime field's value can be updated in the original DataSet. This must be done because if the user wants to make more changes she will need the current values from the database merged back into the local DataSet and shown on screen. This includes the LastUpdateDateTime value which is used in the WHERE clause. Without this field's current value, a false concurrency violation would occur.
Reporting Violations
If a concurrency violation occurs, it will bubble up and be caught by the exception handler shown in Figure 3 in the catch block for DBConcurrencyException. This block calls the FillConcurrencyValues method, which displays both the original values in the DataSet that were attempted to be saved to the database and the values currently in the database. This method is used merely to show the user why the violation occurred. Notice that the exDBC variable is passed to the FillConcurrencyValues method. This instance of the special database concurrency exception class (DBConcurrencyException) contains the row where the violation occurred. When a concurrency violation occurs, the screen is updated to look like Figure 1.
The DataSet not only stores the schema and the current data, it also tracks changes that have been made to its data. It knows which rows and columns have been modified and it keeps track of the before and after versions of these values. When accessing a column's value via the DataRow's indexer, in addition to the column index you can also specify a value using the DataRowVersion enumerator. For example, after a user changes the value of the last name of an employee, the following lines of C# code will retrieve the original and current values stored in the LastName column:
string sLastName_Before = oEmpRow["LastName", DataRowVersion.Original];
string sLastName_After = oEmpRow["LastName", DataRowVersion.Current];
The FillConcurrencyValues method uses the row from the DBConcurrencyException and gets a fresh copy of the same row from the database. It then displays the values using the DataRowVersion enumerators to show the original value of the row before the update and the value in the database alongside the current values in the textboxes.
User's Choice
Once the user has been notified of the concurrency issue, you could leave it up to her to decide how to handle it. Another alternative is to code a specific way to deal with concurrency, such as always handling the exception to let the user know (but refreshing the data from the database). In this sample application I let the user decide what to do next. She can either cancel changes, cancel and reload from the database, save changes, or save anyway.
The option to cancel changes simply calls the RejectChanges method of the DataSet and rebinds the DataSet to the controls in the ASP.NET page. The RejectChanges method reverts the changes that the user made back to its original state by setting all of the current field values to the original field values. The option to cancel changes and reload the data from the database also rejects the changes but additionally goes back to the database via the Employee class in order to get a fresh copy of the data before rebinding to the control on the ASP.NET page.
The option to save changes attempts to save the changes but will fail if a concurrency violation is encountered. Finally, I included a "save anyway" option. This option takes the values the user attempted to save and uses the last-in wins technique, overwriting whatever is in the database. It does this by calling a different command object associated with a stored procedure that only uses the primary key field (EmployeeID) in the WHERE clause of the UPDATE statement. This technique should be used with caution as it will overwrite the record.
If you want a more automatic way of dealing with the changes, you could get a fresh copy from the database. Then overwrite just the fields that the current user modified, such as the Extension field. That way, in the example I used the proper LastName would not be overwritten. Use this with caution as well, however, because if the same field was modified by both users, you may want to just back out or ask the user what to do next. What is obvious here is that there are several ways to deal with concurrency violations, each of which must be carefully weighed before you decide on the one you will use in your application.
Wrapping It Up
Setting the SqlDataAdapter's ContinueUpdateOnError property tells the SqlDataAdapter to either throw an exception when a concurrency violation occurs or to skip the row that caused the violation and to continue with the remaining updates. By setting this property to false (its default value), it will throw an exception when it encounters a concurrency violation. This technique is ideal when only saving a single row or when you are attempting to save multiple rows and want them all to commit or all to fail.
I have split the topic of concurrency violation management into two parts. Next time I will focus on what to do when multiple rows could cause concurrency violations. I will also discuss how the DataViewRowState enumerators can be used to show what changes have been made to a DataSet.
How you will set the datarelation between two columns?
ADO.NET provides DataRelation object to set relation between two columns.It helps to enforce the following constraints,a unique constraint, which guarantees that a column in the table contains no duplicates and a foreign-key constraint,which can be used to maintain referential integrity.A unique constraint is implemented either by simply setting the Unique property of a data column to true, or by adding an instance of the UniqueConstraint class to the DataRelation object's ParentKeyConstraint. As part of the foreign-key constraint, you can specify referential integrity rules that are applied at three points,when a parent record is updated,when a parent record is deleted and when a change is accepted or rejected.

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